Sharing the Ride: Ixodes scapularis Symbionts and Their Interactions

The deer tick Ixodes scapularis transmits a variety of disease agents in the United States, spreading the bacteria that causes Lyme borreliosis, the protozoan agent of babesiosis, and viruses such as Powassan. However, a variety of other organisms have also evolved symbiotic relationships with this tick species, and it seems likely that some of these microbes have simultaneously coevolved mechanisms to impact each other and their tick host. The number of organisms identified as I. scapularis symbionts has increased seemingly exponentially with the advent of PCR and next generation sequencing technologies, but convincing arguments have proposed that some of these are of environmental origin, unadapted to surviving the physiological conditions of the tick or that they are artifacts of ultrasensitive detection methods. In this review, we examine the diversity of the known microbes occurring within the I. scapularis microbiome, the evidence for interactions between microbes, and discuss whether some organisms reported to be symbionts of I. scapularis are experimental artifacts.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Ticks and mosquitoes don’t care about COVID-19 safety protocols. They don’t care that people are trying to squeeze out the last moments of this restrictive summer by getting outdoors, hiking, or just sitting on their decks at night and feeling something that’s close to normal. COVID-19 has commanded our attention and caused people to adapt their behaviors to prevent one major health concern, but it doesn’t mean others have been eliminated. “Masks and social distancing will do nothing to protect you from what ticks and mosquitoes potentially carry,” says Dr. Todd Ellerin, director of infe...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases Prevention Safety Source Type: blogs
IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 5105: Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Tick-Borne Diseases in North-Central Wisconsin from 2000–2016 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17145105 Authors: Austin Rau Claudia Munoz-Zanzi Anna M. Schotthoefer Jonathan D. Oliver Jesse D. Berman Lyme disease is a well-recognized public health problem in the USA, however, other tick-borne diseases also have major public health impacts. Yet, limited research has evaluated changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of non-Lyme tick-borne diseases within endemic regions. Using laboratory dat...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Ticks are the most important vectors of human pathogens, leading to increased public health burdens worldwide. Tick-borne pathogens include viruses (e.g. tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan); bacteria, such as the causative agents of Lyme disease, spotted fever rickettsiosis and human anaplasmosis; and malaria-like protozoan parasites causing babesiosis. Tick-borne diseases are emerging due to the geographical expansion of their tick vectors, especially in the northern hemisphere. Two examples of this phenomenon are Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum, which have expanded their ranges in the USA i...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada : JOGC - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol Can Source Type: research
Abstract Tickborne diseases that affect patients in the United States include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, and tickborne relapsing fever. Tickborne diseases are increasing in incidence and should be suspected in patients presenting with flulike symptoms during the spring and summer months. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and death. Location of exposure, identification of the specific tick vector, and evaluation of rash, if present, help identify the specific disease. Lyme disease presents with an ...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Seunghee Lee, Hyunkyoung Lee, Jung-Won Park, Soon-Seek Yoon, Hyun-Ji Seo, Jinhyeong Noh, Mi-Sun Yoo, Keun-Ho Kim, Yeojin Park, Yun Sang Cho, Byung Jae So
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
The incidence of tick-borne infections in the United States has risen significantly in the past decade. Ticks can transmit a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, that can cause serious illnesses. Therefore, the use of rapid, sensitive, and specific multiplex tests is important to identify the pathogen(s) in the acute phase and determine appropriate treatment to minimize the severity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ChromaCode’s research use only (RUO) nine-target high-definition PCR (HDPCR) tick-borne pathogen (TBP) panel using 379 retrospective, remnant whole-bloo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Parasitology Source Type: research
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Source: Clinical Medicine and Research - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Clin Med Res Source Type: research
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Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health Syndicated CBSN Boston Deer Ticks LYME DISEASE Maine news Source Type: news
We report here the validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay using whole blood specimens on the Luminex ARIES® instrument, combining DNA extraction, amplification and detection into a one-step process. This method allows for rapid and sensitive detection of acute infections with Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using whole blood specimens. We included A. phagocytophilum to monitor emergence of this pathogen in Kentucky, since surrounding states have reported many more cases than Kentucky.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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