Epidemiology of head and neck cancers: an update
Purpose of review This review attempts to give an update of epidemiological knowledge on head and neck cancers (HNC). Recent findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2017, incidence rates for larynx and nasopharyngeal cancers decreased, whereas they increased for oro/hypopharyngeal cancers and lip/oral cavity cancers. They are still markedly higher among men than women. South Asia has the highest HNC incidence rate, followed by Europe, North America, and Australasia. Tobacco and alcohol remain the major risk factors. Rate of cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) among HNCs is highly depending on world region and tobacco use prevalence. It increases in high-income countries. In the US population, the number of HPV-attributable oropharyngeal cancers now exceeds the number of cervix cancers. HPV vaccination for boys is recommended in an increasing number of countries. Many occupations are associated with an increased HNC risk. Fruits and vegetables intake have a protective effect against HNC. Summary To decrease HNC incidence, measures to reduce tobacco use and alcohol consumption remain essential. Improvement of HPV vaccination coverage is also a major objective. Reduction of carcinogens at occupation, protection of workers from carcinogen exposures, education for better diet, and easy and affordable access to fruits and vegetables can contribute to incidence decrease.
CONCLUSION: Mobile phones belonging to health care workers are frequently contaminated with pathogenic bacteria with the potential of transferring drug resistance to nosocomial pathogens. Studies investigating the relationship to surgical site infections need to be conducted. The concept of "mobile hygiene" involving the change of mobile covers, replacement of cracked screens or even wiping the phone with an alcohol swab could yield the cost-effective balance that contaminated cell phones deserve until they are established as a direct cause of surgical site infections. PMID: 32477902 [PubMed]
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: MethodsAuthor(s): Reyhaneh Manafi-Farid, Najme Karamzade-Ziarati, Reza Vali, Felix M. Mottaghy, Mohsen Beheshti
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Dipanwita Das Mukherjee, N. Maruthi Kumar, Mukund P. Tantak, Satabdi Datta, Debabrata Ghosh Dastidar, Dalip Kumar, Gopal Chakrabarti
Authors: Barber MRW, Clarke AE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that affects almost every organ system and it is treated with immunomodulation and immunosuppression. SLE patients have an intrinsically dysfunctional immune system which is exacerbated by disease activity and leaves them vulnerable to infection. Treatment with immunosuppression increases susceptibility to infection, while hydroxychloroquine use decreases this risk. Infectious diseases are a leading cause of hospitalization and death. AREAS COVERED: This narrative review provides an overview of rec...
Th17 cells (producing IL-17) and Th9 cells (producing IL-9) exhibit functional plasticity, and their role in tumorigenicity is controversial. Th17/IL-17 and Th9/IL-9 exhibit critical, but often opposing, roles in tumor progression. In this issue of the JCI, Salazar et al. show that while IL-17 and IL-9 induced distinct but complementary molecular pathways, both cytokines also induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells and promoted metastatic spreading. A key question before us now is whether IL-9 and IL-17 contribute to tumor progression in a sequential and stage-specific manner within the tumor microenvironment.
Emerging immune therapy, such as with the anti–programmed cell death–1 (anti–PD-1) monoclonal antibody nivolumab, has shown efficacy in tumor suppression. Patients with terminal cancer suffer from cancer pain as a result of bone metastasis and bone destruction, but how PD-1 blockade affects bone cancer pain remains unknown. Here, we report that mice lacking Pdcd1 (Pd1−/−) demonstrated remarkable protection against bone destruction induced by femoral inoculation of Lewis lung cancer cells. Compared with WT mice, Pd1−/− mice exhibited increased baseline pain sensitivity, but the deve...
In conclusion, Th9 and Th17 lymphocytes induce lung cancer cell EMT, thereby promoting migration and metastatic spreading and offering potentially novel therapeutic strategies.
Letter to the editor regarding "Potential for prevention: a cohort study of colonoscopies and removal of adenomas in a FIT-based colorectal cancer screening programme". Scand J Gastroenterol. 2020 Jun 01;:1-2 Authors: Thomsen MK, Støvring H, Mikkelsen EM PMID: 32479193 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2020Source: Sensors and Actuators B: ChemicalAuthor(s): Hyun Jeong Won, Akhmad Irhas Robby, Hee Sauk Jhon, Insik In, Ji Hyun Ryu, Sung Young Park
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