The Role of Exosomal microRNA in Cancer Drug Resistance

Exosomes affect the initiation and progression of cancers. In the tumor microenvironment, not only cancer cells, but also fibroblasts and immunocytes secrete exosomes. Exosomes act as a communicator between cells by transferring different cargos and microRNAs (miRNAs). Drug resistance is one of the critical factors affecting therapeutic effect in the course of cancer treatment. The currently known mechanisms of drug resistance include drug efflux, alterations in drug metabolism, DNA damage repair, alterations of energy programming, cancer stem cells and epigenetic changes. Many studies have shown that miRNA carried by exosomes is closely associated with the development of drug resistance mediated by the above-mentioned mechanisms. This review article will discuss how exosomal miRNAs regulate the drug resistance.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In conclusion, our results suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby the canonical NF-κB cascade and a mitochondrial fission pathway interdependently regulate endothelial inflammation. Lin28 as a Target for Nerve Regeneration https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/lin28-as-a-target-for-nerve-regeneration/ Researchers here show that the gene Lin28 regulates axon regrowth. In mice, raised levels of Lin28 produce greater regeneration of nerve injuries. Past research has investigated Lin28 from the standpoint of producing a more general improvement in regenerative capacity. It improves mitoch...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
A UCLA research team has successfully used  the powerful gene-editing tool known as CRISPR-Cas9 to alter the DNA of mature innate immune cells, some of the body’s first responders to infections. These blood cells have been notoriously difficult to genetically engineer in the past.While the work was carried out in mice, the ability to  modify the gene expression of these cells could one day allow clinicians to better harness the power of the immune system in the fight against cancer and autoimmune disease.The study, published in the journal Cell Reports, was led by senior author...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
This study provides direct evidence for the contribution of gut microbiota to the cognitive decline during normal aging and suggests that restoring microbiota homeostasis in the elderly may improve cognitive function. On Nutraceutical Senolytics https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/on-nutraceutical-senolytics/ Nutraceuticals are compounds derived from foods, usually plants. In principle one can find useful therapies in the natural world, taking the approach of identifying interesting molecules and refining them to a greater potency than naturally occurs in order to produce a usefully large therape...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we found that older nematodes have higher ROS levels. Interestingly, after hydrogen treatment, the ROS levels were significantly decreased, and hydrogen could significantly extend the lifespans of the N2, sod-3 and sod-5 mutant strains, by approximately 22.7%, 9.5%, and 8.7%, respectively. In addition, aging is regulated by a variety of pathways, such as the insulin signaling pathway, the rapamycin target signaling pathway, and the caloric restriction pathway. However, our results showed that the lifespans of the daf-2 and daf-16 strains, in which these pathways are upregulated, were not affected afte...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The objective is to start treating chronic diseases from the root and not the symptoms of the disease. As we are starting to enroll patients in "senolytics-clinical trials," it will be imperative to assess if senolysis efficiently targets the primary cause of disease or if it works best in combination with other drugs. Additional basic science research is required to address the fundamental role of senescent cells, especially in the established contexts of disease. Notes on Self-Experimentation with Sex Steroid Ablation for Regrowth of the Thymus https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/04/notes-on-se...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
I periodically publish thoughts on self-experiments that seem interesting and relevant to aging. Despite the influence of the quantified self movement, the broader self-experimentation community is largely terrible on matters of research, rigor, reporting, and safety. My motivation is to something to raise the bar on all of these items. For every discussion I've published on a particular self-experiment, there are half a dozen others sitting at some stage of research and interest. Over the past year or so, I've been on and off looking into sex steroid ablation as a mechanism for thymus regrowth. Since my company, Re...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Self-Experimentation Source Type: blogs
In test with mice, the sterosome activated bone regeneration was activated without needing additional drugsBrianna Aldrich |April 22, 2020A team of biomaterials scientists and dentists at theUCLA School of Dentistry has developed a nanoparticle that, based on initial experiments in animals, could improve treatment for bone defects.A paper describing the advance is published today in the journal Science Advances. Bone defects, which can be caused by traumatic injury, infection, osteoporosis or the removal of tumors, are difficult for orthopedic surgeons to treat. And the need for bone grafts are becoming more common thanks ...
Source: Dental Technology Blog - Category: Dentistry Source Type: news
Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFSs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by defective hematopoiesis, impaired stem cell function, and cancer susceptibility. Diagnosis of IBMFS presents a major challenge due to the large variety of associated phenotypes, and novel, clinically relevant biomarkers are urgently needed. Our study identified nuclear interaction partner of ALK (NIPA) as an IBMFS gene, as it is significantly downregulated in a distinct subset of myelodysplastic syndrome–type (MDS-type) refractory cytopenia in children. Mechanistically, we showed that NIPA is major player in the F...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Cohesin is a ring-shaped multiprotein complex that is crucial for 3D genome organization and transcriptional regulation during differentiation and development. It also confers sister chromatid cohesion and facilitates DNA damage repair. Besides its core subunits SMC3, SMC1A, and RAD21, cohesin in somatic cells contains one of two orthologous STAG subunits, STAG1 or STAG2. How these variable subunits affect the function of the cohesin complex is still unclear. STAG1- and STAG2-cohesin were initially proposed to organize cohesion at telomeres and centromeres, respectively. Here, we uncover redundant and specific roles of STA...
Source: Genome Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Nrf2 deficiency promoted the increasing trend of autophagy during aging in skeletal muscle. Nrf2 deficiency and increasing age may cause excessive autophagy in skeletal muscle, which can be a potential mechanism for the development of sarcopenia. To What Degree is Chondrocyte Hypertrophy in Osteoarthritis Due to Cellular Senescence? https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/04/to-what-degree-is-chondrocyte-hypertrophy-in-osteoarthritis-due-to-cellular-senescence/ Senescent cells are large. They do not replicate, that function is disabled, but it is as if they go ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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