Photos from the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic

After World War I, something much more deadly arrived on America's shores: the H1N1 influenza virus, known as the Spanish flu.
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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In addition to causing the pandemic influenza outbreaks of 1918 and 2009, subtype H1N1 influenza A viruses (IAVs) have caused seasonal epidemics since 1977. Antigenic property of influenza viruses are determin...
Source: BMC Bioinformatics - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Methodology article Source Type: research
BackgroundSARS ‐CoV‐2, the virus that causes COVID‐19 disease, is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The symptoms presently recognized by the World Health Organization are cough, fever, tiredness, and difficulty breathing. Patient‐reported smell and taste loss has been associated with COVID‐19 infection, yet no empirical olfactory testing on a cohort of COVID‐19 patients has been performed.MethodsThe University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a well ‐validated 40‐odorant test, was administered to 60 confirmed COVID‐19 inpatients and 60 age‐ an...
Source: International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Abstract In 2018, the world commemorated the centennial of the 1918 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, the deadliest pandemic in recorded history; however, little mention was made of the 50th anniversary of the 1968 A(H3N2) pandemic. Although pandemic morbidity and mortality were much lower in 1968 than in 1918, influenza A(H3N2) virus infections have become the leading cause of seasonal influenza illness and death over the last 50 years, with more than twice the number of hospitalizations from A(H3N2) as from A(H1N1) during the past six seasons. We review the emergence, progression, clinical course, etiology, epidemiolo...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Am J Public Health Source Type: research
Authors: Flahault A, Zylberman P Abstract Influenza epidemics occur regularly and prediction of their conversion to pandemics and their impact is difficult. Coordination of efforts on a global scale to control or reduce the impact is fraught with potential for under and overreaction. In light of the 1956 pandemic and more recently the SARS and H1N1 pandemics, the public health community took steps toward strengthening global surveillance and a coordinated response in keeping with the continuing memory of the tragedy seen in 1918. The scientific, professional, and technical resources of the 21st century are now adva...
Source: Public Health Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research
Throughout history, infectious diseases represent a major global threat to human life and health, knowing neither geographic nor political borders. In 1918 the “Spanish flu” pandemic, caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus, led to catastrophic consequences with a global mortality toll of more than 50 million people (greater than the two world wars). The impact of this influenza virus was not confined to a single period; to date, three subsequent outbreak s (1957, 1968, and 2009, the last called “Swine flu”) resulted from descendants of the initial virus, which acquired one or more genes through reassortment [1].
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Ajay Kohli Vinay Kohli Chitra Chhabra Kohli By CHITRA CHHABRA KOHLI MD, AJAY KOHLI MD, and VINAY KOHLI MD, MBA With a doubling time of cases estimated between 3 days within the U.S. and about 6 days globally (at the time of this writing) COVID-19 is demonstrating its terrifying virulence as it spreads across the world. What’s perhaps equally terrifying, if not more, is the absence of a known cure or treatment plan for COVID-19. While there has been a lot of attention focused on Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin, there has been debate on the scientific validity of these treatment options, either as t...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 Patients Physicians Ajay Kohli Azithromycin convalescent plasma therapy coronavirus COVID-19 treatment hydroxychloroquine Pandemic Vinay Kohli Source Type: blogs
The recent WHO decision to declare the novel coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), while both appropriate and hardly surprising, offers the opportunity to reflect on the previous PHEIC which was declared, namely the Ebola epidemic in Kivu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). And you should really say the ongoing Ebola epidemic, as during the time since the declaration in July 2019 through to the present day (March 2020), a total of 3,453 cases have been reported [1]. The nCoV-2019 outbreak is still ballooning; as of today, over 400,000 confirmed cases worldwide with no ...
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Ebooks Epidemiology Outbreaks Source Type: blogs
In this study, 15 H1N1, one H1N2, and four H3N2 strains were isolated from a total of 4080 nasal swabs which were collected from 20 pig farms in three provinces in China between 2016 and 2019. All the isolates were clustered into four genotypes. A new genotype represented by the H1N2 strain was found, whose fragments came from the triple reassortant H1N2 lineage, classical swine influenza virus (cs-H1N1) lineage, and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus lineage. A/Sw/HB/HG394/2018(H1N1), which was clustered into the cs-H1N1 lineage, showed a close relationship with the 1918 pandemic virus. Mutations determining the host range specific...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Well before news of COVID-19 wreaked havoc on our borders, travels, news cycle, and hand sanitizer supplies, influenza was quietly going about its yearly routine business with minimal hubbub from the media.To put things in perspective, consider that for the 2019-20 flu season, there have been an estimated 20,000 - 52,000 deaths thus far per the Center for Disease Control in the United States alone. That is just one country.In contrast, there have been approximately 3,600 deaths from COVID-19 worldwide. More deaths are sure to follow, and quite possibly, the final tally may far outstrip that of the seasonal flu.An unkn...
Source: A Pediatrician's Blog - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: blogs
Yan Zhou The constant crosstalk between the large avian reservoir of influenza A viruses (IAV) and its mammalian hosts drives viral evolution and facilitates their host switching. Direct adaptation of an avian strain to human or reassortment between avian-origin gene segments with that of human strains are the two mechanisms for the emergence of pandemic viruses. While it was suggested that the 1918 pandemic virus is of avian origin, reassortment of 1918 human isolates and avian influenza viruses led to the generation of 1957 and 1968 pandemic viruses. Interestingly, the avian PB1 segment, which encodes the catalyti...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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