Virginia Tech scientists reveal brain tumors impact normally helpful cells

(Virginia Tech) Unprovoked recurrent seizures are a serious problem affecting most patients who suffer from glioma, a primary brain tumor composed of malignant glial cells. Fralin Biomedical Research Institute researchers tested the hypothesis that glioma-induces processes that renders a type of brain cells dysfunctional, perpetuating the imbalance between excitation and inhibition in tumor-associated epilepsy.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Authors: Burnstock G Abstract ATP is a cotransmitter with glutamate, noradrenaline, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain. There is a widespread presence of both adenosine (P1) and P2 nucleotide receptors in the brain on both neurons and glial cells. Adenosine receptors play a major role in presynaptic neuromodulation, while P2X ionotropic receptors are involved in fast synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. P2Y G protein-coupled receptors are largely involved in presynaptic activities, as well as mediating long-term (trophic) signalling in cell proliferation, differentiation and death during develo...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
(Baylor College of Medicine) Scientists discovered that glioma, a lethal form of brain cancer, alters the activity of neighboring neurons, accelerating a vicious cycle that drives tumor-associated epilepsy and tumor progression.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that postoperative broadband power is of additional value in predicting PFS beyond already known predictors.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Brain tumors, particularly high-grade glioblastomas, are a crucial public health issue due to poor prognosis and an extremely low survival rate. The glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grows rapidly within its unique microenvironment that is characterized by active neural communications. Therefore, diverse neurotransmitters not only maintain normal brain functions but also influence glioma progression. To fully appreciate the relationship between neurotransmitters and glioma progression, we reviewed potential neurotransmitter contributors in human GBM and the much less aggressive Low-grade glioma (LGG) by combi...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between the EOR and the Engel score for epilepsy control: an EOR 90 was associated with Engel I. Eloquent area gliomas can safely be resected when surgeons use not only microsurgical anatomy concepts but also brain mapping.RESUMO Epilepsia refrat ária secundária a tumores cerebrais são geralmente causadas por gliomas de baixo grau. Esse grupo de tumor é frequentemente localizado em áreas eloquentes do cérebro como na insula, córtex rolândico e área motora suplementar; e sua ressecção apr...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Chonan M, Saito R, Kanamori M, Osawa SI, Watanabe M, Suzuki H, Nakasato N, Tominaga T Abstract After introduction of levetiracetam (LEV), treatment of seizures in patients with malignant brain tumors has prominently improved. On the other hand, we still experience some cases with LEV-uncontrollable epilepsy. Perampanel (PER) is a noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoaxazolepropionate acid receptor antagonist that has recently been approved for treating focal epilepsy as a secondary drug of choice. Available literature reporting PER medication in patients with gliomas is still sparse. Here, ...
Source: Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel in rat C6 glioma model. In first pilot experiments, perampanel reduced glucose uptake but had no impact of extracellular glutamate level in vitro. To analyze the effects of perampanel in vivo, we injected C6 cells orthotopically into the neocortex of Wistar rats in order to establish a model of glioma-associated epilepsy. Spontaneous recurrent discharges in brain slices were abolished upon perfusion with the AMPA receptor blocker perampanel, supporting the major role of glutamatergic excitation. With respect to the tumor progression, no effec...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop a platform in which the cellular and molecular underpinnings of chronic focal neocortical lesional epilepsy can be explored and use it to characterize seizure-like events (SLEs) in an ex vivo model of infiltrating high-grade glioma. Microelectrode arrays were used to study electrophysiologic changes in ex vivo acute brain slices from a PTEN/p53 deleted, PDGF-B driven mouse model of high-grade glioma. Electrode locations were co-registered to the underlying histology to ascertain the influence of the varying histologic landscape on the observed electrophysiologic cha...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
Gliomas are fatal brain tumors, and even low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have an average survival of less than a decade. Seizures are a common presentation of gliomas, particularly LGGs, and substantially impact quality of life. Glioma-related seizures differ from other focal epilepsies in their pathogenesis and in the likelihood of refractory epilepsy. We review factors that predict seizure activity and response to treatment, optimal pharmacologic and surgical management of glioma-related epilepsy, and the benefit of using newer anti-seizure medications in patients with gliomas.
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical characteristic and outcomes of tumor-associated SE (TASE) in a population of adult patients with glioma prospectively collected between 2013 and 2019. In the aforementioned period, we observed 26 TASE (median age: 68 years). Overall, 22 patients (85%) presented a HGG (one anaplastic astrocytoma and 21 a glioblastoma) while 4 had a LGG (two diffuse astrocytoma and two ganglioglioma). All the lesions were supratentorial, and the temporal lobe was the most frequently involved (20 patients). Fourteen patients (54%) had the SE episode as the first manifestation of the tumor; in...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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