Gut transit time, using radiological contrast imaging, to predict early signs of necrotizing enterocolitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Region-dependent changes in gut transit time is associated with early NEC development in preterm pigs. How gut dysmotility is related to NEC in preterm infants requires further investigations. IMPACT: Using preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants, we show that gut transit time, using serial x-ray contrast imaging, was changed in individuals with NEC-like lesions before they showed the typical radiological signs of NEC. Thus prolonged transit time across the entire gut was recorded when NEC lesions appeared in the small intestine but not when lesions were detected only in the colon.Until now, recordings of food transit have mainly investigated changes in the upper gut. Using serial x-rays, this study describes food transit across the entire gut and documents a region-dependent effect of NEC lesions on gut transit changes in preterm individuals.The findings provide proof of concept for use of x-ray contrast imaging as a tool to monitor gut transit in preterm pigs as models for infants. Delayed passage across the entire gut may be an early sign of small intestinal NEC, at least in pigs. More studies are needed to confirm relations in infants. In the future, it might be possible to use x-ray contrast imaging in preterm infants to better understand gut motility in relation to early NEC progression and need for medical NEC treatment. PMID: 32244249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research

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Pharyngeal stimulation shows that pharyngeal ‐esophageal‐cardiac‐respiratory (PECR) response characteristics are not different in infants with recurrent bradycardia. However, PECR dysfunction occurs during severe bradycardia and its mechanisms are related to abnormal prolongation of vagal inhibitory effects on cardiac‐respiratory rhyth ms in conjunction with prolonged esophageal inhibition and delays with terminal swallow. AbstractObjectiveEating difficulties coupled with cardiorespiratory spells delay acquisition of feeding milestones in convalescing neonates, and the mechanisms are unclear. Aims were to examine a...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Authors: Kaur G, Banka S, Meena B, Kulkarni A, Prajapat R, Dhaka J Abstract Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of unknown aetiology. A small subset (10%) of patients with limited systemic sclerosis have all other features of the disease without any skin involvement and is known as systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc). Severe Critical Limb Ischaemia is rare in sine scleroderma.The present case showed severe critical limb ischaemia with severe PAH,Esophageal dysmotility,Glomerulonephritis(a rare association) with hypertension. Although skin thickening is considered as a hallmark of system...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study suggested that EA at ST36 could ameliorate disordered jejunal motility induced by stress, and that this might be associated with the down-regulation of CRFr2. PMID: 32605385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tags: Acupunct Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Patients suffering from an autoimmune disease need special attention as multiple immune mediated disorders may be present simultaneously or sequentially during the course of the disease process. MAS patients are at a higher risk for acquiring infections and tumor development due to prolonged use of immunosuppressants. These patients need close surveillance for the development of another autoimmune disease, so as to control the current disease and to prevent future complications. This case report emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach including an immunologist who may facilitate better un...
Source: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Rev Recent Clin Trials Source Type: research
The incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains on the rise. Pathophysiology of GERD is multifactorial, revolving around an incompetent esophagogastric junction as an antireflux barrier, with other comorbid conditions contributing to the disease. Proton pump inhibitors remain the most common treatment of GERD. Endoscopic therapy has gained popularity as a less invasive option. The presence of esophageal dysmotility complicates the choice of surgical fundoplication. Most literature demonstrates that fundoplication is safe in the setting of ineffective or weak peristalsis and that postoperative dysphagia cann...
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Lung transplantation is a high-risk, but lifesaving, procedure for patients with end-stage lung disease. Although 1-year survival is high, long-term survival is not nearly as high, due mainly to acute and chronic rejection. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is the most common type of chronic rejection and often leads to poor outcomes. For this reason, esophageal testing in the lung transplant population has become a major issue, and this article discusses the evidence behind esophageal testing, the importance of esophageal dysmotility gastroesophageal reflux disease, both acidic and nonacidic reflux, and aspiration and the...
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, both fasting and postprandial manometric tracings of 24-hour antroduodenojejunal manometries were analyzed using both visual analysis and computer-aided analysis. RESULTS:  In 34 patients (83 %), the mean migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle length was different compared with healthy controls. Phase II was prolonged in 27 patients (66 %), while phase I showed a reduced duration in 23 (56 %) and in phase III in 13 individuals (32 %). We also observed special motor patterns, e. g., migrating clustered contractions (MCCs) or retrograde clustered contractions (RCCs), which were present during ...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Z Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Abstract Neurogenic bowel following spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to decreased colonic motility, remodeling of the neuromuscular compartment and results in chronic evacuation difficulties. The distal colon of the rat serves a dual role for fluid absorption and storage that is homologous to the descending colon of humans. Dysmotility of the descending colon is one component of neurogenic bowel. We investigated the integrity of the enteric neuromuscular transmission responsible for the generation of excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials (EJPs and IJPs, respectively) in the distal colon of rats. We previousl...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
ConclusionRobotically assisted Heller myotomy and POEM are safe and efficacious treatments for achalasia with lower rates of technical complications compared to laparoscopic Heller myotomy. With the advancements in endoscopic instruments and robotic surgery, POEM and robotically assisted Heller myotomy should be considered in the treatment of achalasia and esophageal dysmotility disorders.
Source: Surgical Endoscopy - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Enteric neuronal degeneration, as seen in inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and diabetes, can lead to gastrointestinal dysmotility. Pyroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death but little is known about its role in enteric neuronal degeneration. We observed higher levels of cleaved caspase-1, a marker of pyroptosis, in myenteric ganglia of overweight and obese human subjects compared with normal-weight subjects. Western diet–fed (WD-fed) mice exhibited increased myenteric neuronal pyroptosis, delayed colonic transit, and impaired electric field stimulation–induced colonic relaxation responses. WD incr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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