Smart Strategies for Therapeutic Agent Delivery into Brain across the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis.

Smart Strategies for Therapeutic Agent Delivery into Brain across the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2020;68(4):316-325 Authors: Tashima T Abstract Discriminatory drug delivery into target cells is essential to effectively elicit the drug activity and to avoid off-target side effects; however, transporting drugs across the cell membrane is difficult due to factors such as molecular size, hydrophilicity, intercellular adhesiveness, and efflux transporters, particularly, in the brain capillary endothelial cells. Drug delivery into the brain is blocked by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, developing drugs for the central nervous system (CNS) diseases remains a challenge. The approach based on receptor-mediated transcytosis (RMT) can overcome this impassable problem at the BBB. Well-designed molecules for RMT form conjugates with the ligand and drugs via linkers or nanoparticles. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), receptor-targeting peptides, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are often used as ligands. The binding of ligand to the receptor on the endothelial cell surface induces endocytosis. Existing exosomes comprising the conjugates move in the cytoplasm and fuse with the opposite plasma membrane to release them. Subsequently, the transcytosed conjugate-loaded drugs or released drugs from the conjugates elicit activity in the brain. As receptors, transferrin receptor (TfR), low-density lipoprotein recept...
Source: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionDespite the lack of statistical significance, when assessing the efficacy and safety outcomes for each drug in the evidence network, donepezil appeared to have a more favourable overall benefit/risk profile for patients with DLB. Further comparative trials are required to improve understanding of the true difference between existing and potential future treatment options.
Source: Neurology and Therapy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: HWE deviation of particular variants in relation to global populational HWE, could be, at least in part, associated with the differential susceptibility of specific populations and ethnicities to neurodegenerative diseases. Our data might contribute to the epidemiology and diagnostic/prognostic methods for neurodegenerative diseases.RESUMO Introdu ção: Mitocôndrias defeituosas ou danificadas resultam em alterações do metabolismo energético, equilíbrio redox e dinâmica celular e são, portanto, identificadas como o ponto central da patogênese em ...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have provided a promising tool for cell therapy. Umbilical cord (UC) is one of the best sources of MSCs since its collection is noninvasive, and effortless, and the cells from this source are more capable and prolific. It has been proven that the differentiation, migration and protective properties of UC-MSCs are superior compared with other kinds of stem cells. Moreover, incurable neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Huntington, encourage scientists to apply UC-MSCs transplantation in order to find a definite tr...
Source: Regenerative Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Regen Med Source Type: research
Authors: Argyrou A Abstract Protein folding is considered strongly linked with genetics. The deeper understanding of the mechanisms that allow the folding of proteins is expected to lead to advances in the pharmaceutical sector. The shape of a protein dictates its biological activity, and any exceptions from its natural form can lead to diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and many others. The recent advances in the research of protein folding include computational models for the prediction of protein folding with enough accuracy. In order to understand the process of protein misfolding, a synopsis of the pro...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Salis C, Papageorgiou L, Papakonstantinou E, Hagidimitriou M, Vlachakis D Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases lead to the death of nerve cells in the brain or the spinal cord. A wide range of diseases are included within the group of neurodegenerative disorders, with the most common ones being dementia, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Millions of older people are suffering from such pathologies. The global increase of life expectancy unavoidably leads to a consequent increase in the number of people who will be at some degree affected by neurodegenerative-related diseases. At this moment, there is n...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
ConclusionUnderstanding these common links and central topologies under the perspective of systems biology and network theory and greater insights are provided to uncover the complex neurodegeneration processes. PMID: 32468556 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
When you’re tearing off a sheet of aluminum foil to cook with — or wrap your leftovers before you put them in the fridge — you probably never consider aluminum is a dangerous toxin. Truth is, aluminum is a heavy metal… just like lead, mercury and arsenic. It’s in our food… our cookware… even in the water we drink. Exposure to aluminum is a risk factor for cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and bone disease, just to name a few. Our lungs, liver, and kidneys are able to eliminate a majority of the small amounts of aluminum we ingest through eating, drinking or breath...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tags: Health Source Type: news
Authors: Raval U, Harary J, Zeng E, Pasinetti GM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Age related neurodegenerative disorders affect millions of people around the world. The role of the gut microbiome (GM) in neurodegenerative disorders has been elucidated over the past few years. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome ultimately results in neurodegeneration. However, the gut microbiome can be modulated to promote neuro-resilience. AREAS COVERED: This review is focused on demonstrating the role of the gut microbiome in host physiology in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. We will discuss how the microbiome ...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Abstract Neurological disorders and their sequelae, as of the widespread and critical humans complications, affect the body's nervous systems, organ functions, and behaviors. According to WHO, neurological disorders are currently predicted to affect more than one billion people globally. It is well-established that complementary medicine is one of the high accepted interventions that could have been considered for the management of neurological ailments. The current review aimed to compile a frame from all the crucial data reporting the investigation on the conspicuous intervention of green tea (made of Camellia s...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research
Mucus is integral to gut health and its properties may be affected in neurological disease. Mucus comprises a hydrated network of polymers including glycosylated mucin proteins. We propose that factors that influence the nervous system may also affect the volume, viscosity, porosity of mucus composition and subsequently, gastrointestinal (GI) microbial populations. The gut has its own intrinsic neuronal network, the enteric nervous system, which extends the length of the GI tract and innervates the mucosal epithelium. The ENS regulates gut function including mucus secretion and renewal. Both dysbiosis and gut dysfunction a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
More News: Alzheimer's | Brain | Chemistry | Clinical Trials | Drugs & Pharmacology | Insulin | Nanotechnology | Neurology | Parkinson's Disease