Bacterial-induced cell reprogramming to stem cell-like cells: new premise in host-pathogen interactions.

Bacterial-induced cell reprogramming to stem cell-like cells: new premise in host-pathogen interactions. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014 Dec 22;23C:179-188 Authors: Hess S, Rambukkana A Abstract Bacterial pathogens employ a myriad of strategies to alter host tissue cell functions for bacterial advantage during infection. Recent advances revealed a fusion of infection biology with stem cell biology by demonstrating developmental reprogramming of lineage committed host glial cells to progenitor/stem cell-like cells by an intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. Acquisition of migratory and immunomodulatory properties of such reprogrammed cells provides an added advantage for promoting bacterial spread. This presents a previously unseen sophistication of cell manipulation by hijacking the genomic plasticity of host cells by a human bacterial pathogen. The rationale for such extreme fate conversion of host cells may be directly linked to the exceedingly passive obligate life style of M. leprae with a degraded genome and host cell dependence for both bacterial survival and dissemination, particularly the use of host-derived stem cell-like cells as a vehicle for spreading infection without being detected by immune cells. Thus, this unexpected link between cell reprogramming and infection opens up a new premise in host-pathogen interactions. Furthermore, such bacterial ingenuity could also be harnessed for developing natural ways of reprogramming host c...
Source: Current Opinion in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Microbiol Source Type: research

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Authors: Aradhya R, Jagla K Abstract Notch plays multiple roles both in development and in adult tissue homeostasis. Notch was first identified in Drosophila in which it has then been extensively studied. Among the flag-ship Notch functions we could mention its capacity to keep precursor and stem cells in a nondifferentiated state but also its ability to activate cell proliferation that in some contexts could led to cancer. In general, both these functions involve, canonical, ligand-dependent Notch activation. However, a ligand-independent Notch activation has also been described in a few cellular contexts. Here, w...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Larijani B, Foroughi Heravani N, Alavi-Moghadam S, Goodarzi P, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Payab M, Gholami M, Razi F, Arjmand B Abstract Autism spectrum disorders as a group of pediatric neurodevelopmental diseases is a crucial part of the worldwide disabilities which have influence in communication skills, social interactions, and ability to understand the concepts. The precise pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders due to the abundance of involved mechanisms is unknown. Some of these involved mechanisms are related to genetic factors, chronic neuro inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress,...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Wenhao Weng, Ajay GoelAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of most common malignancies worldwide and its incidence is still growing. In spite of recent advances in targeted therapies, their clinical efficacy has been limited, non-curative and unaffordable. A growing body of literature indicates that CRC is a multi-modal disease, where a variety of factors within the tumor microenvironment play a significant role in its pathogenesis. For instance, imbalance in gut microbial profiles and impaired intestinal barrier function cont...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Stem cell populations become damaged and dysfunctional with age. Some of this is issues with the stem cells themselves, and some of this results from problem with the signaling environment and function of the stem cell niche. Which of these factors is more important likely varies by stem cell population. Among the best studied of stem cell types, the evidence suggests that muscle stem cells remain capable in old age, but become ever more quiescent, while hematopoietic stem cells become damaged and dysfunctional, unable to perform. Hematopoietic stem cells reside in the bone marrow and are responsible for generating blood a...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
In this study, the recombinant lentivirus vector pCDH-CMV-mir204-EF1-GreenPuro containing a goat chi-pri-mir-204 gene DNA segment was structured, and transfected into 293 T cells for packaged lentivirus, which then were injected into mouse seminiferous tubules. After 7 days, the goat miR-204 and the related genes such as Sirt1 and Plzf were detected in the mouse testis. This work laid a good foundation for further study of miR-204 biological function in vivo.
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: Advances in Medical Sciences, Volume 65, Issue 1Author(s): Javad Masoumi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Morteza Abbasloui, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Najmeh JamaliAbstractApelin is an endogenous peptide, which is expressed in a vast board of organs such as the brain, placenta, heart, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, testis, prostate and adipose tissues. The apelin receptor, called angiotensin-like-receptor 1 (APJ), is also expressed in the brain, spleen, placenta, heart, liver, intestine, prostate, thymus, testis, ovary, lungs, kidneys, stomach, and adipose tissue. The apelin/APJ axis ...
Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
by Simon Coghlan, Ph.D. and Kobi Leins, Ph.D. Xenobots have been called “novel living machines” and “living robots”. A co-author of the paper that recently introduced xenobots, said: They’re neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal. [They’re] a new class of artefact: a living, “programmable organism”. These “reconfigurable organisms” have already provoked philosophical and ethical questions. Xenobots are under 1mm in size and composed of 500-1000 cells from frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos. After culturing extracted embryonic stem cells, micro-s...
Source: blog.bioethics.net - Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Tags: Environmental Ethics Featured Posts Philosophy & Ethics Science Technology Source Type: blogs
Publication date: 25 April 2020Source: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Volume 84Author(s): Hyun Joo Kim, Su Jung You, Dae Hyeok Yang, Heung Jae Chun, Moon Suk KimAbstractThe arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) motif plays a critical role in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions through focal adhesion, which may orchestrate various aspects of cellular behaviors for development and maintenance of tissues. Here, we prepared novel thermosensitive hydrogel systems comprising methoxy polyethylene glycol-b-polycaprolactone (MP) and RGD-conjugated MP (MP-RGD) with various RGD contents (MP/MP-RG...
Source: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) remains a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this single institution retrospective case series, 18 children developed SOS after HSCT. Patients were treated with antithrombin III (ATIII), defibrotide, or ATIII followed by defibrotide. Twelve of 13 patients who were treated with ATIII therapy alone had complete resolution of SOS, including 4 of 5 children with severe SOS. In this limited cohort, ATIII was safe and successfully prevented progression of hepatic SOS following HSCT in the majority of children at our center.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research
Although dry eye occurs mostly in adults, dry eye may be induced in teens receiving allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantations (AHSCT). Changes in meibum composition and structure has been associated with dry eye. The structure of meibum from teens with dye eye or teens with dry eye and AHSCT has not been studied, so in this study, we compared the structure of meibum from teens receiving AHSCT that had a dry eye with meibum from teens without AHSCT and without dry eye symptoms.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research
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