Paeoniflorin attenuates early brain injury through reducing oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

This study explores the effect of paeoniflorin on early brain injury (EBI) using rat SAH model. We found that paeoniflorin significantly improves neurological deficits, attenuates brain water content and Evans blue extravasation at 72 h after SAH. Paeoniflorin attenuates the oxidative stress following SAH as evidenced by decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-Nitrotyrosine, and 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OHDG) level, increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase activity, and up-regulates the nuclear factor erythroid ‑related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase‑1 (HO-1) pathway. Inhibition of microglia activation and neuro-inflammatory response both contributed to paeoniflorin’s protective effects. Moreover, paeoniflorin treatment significantly reduces the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, active caspase-3/ neuronal nuclei ( NeuN) and TUNEL/DAPI positive cells at 72 h following SAH. Our results indicate that paeoniflorin may attenuate early brain injury after experimental SAH.
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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AbstractOxidative stress is a key component of the pathological cascade in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fucoxanthin (Fx) possesses a strong antioxidant property and has shown neuroprotective effects in acute brain injuries such as ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Fx against SAH-induced oxidative insults and the possible molecular mechanisms. Our data showed that Fx could significantly inhibit SAH-induced reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation, and restore the impairment of endogenous antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, Fx supplementati...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Sivakumar S, Lazaridis C Abstract Management of volume status, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output are core elements in approaching the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For the prevention and treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), euvolemia is advocated and caution is made towards the avoidance of hypervolemia. Induced hypertension and cardiac output augmentation are the mainstays of medical management during active DCI, whereas the older triple-H paradigm has fallen out of favor due to lack of demonstrable physiological or clinical benefits and serious concern for adv...
Source: Critical Care Research and Practice - Category: Intensive Care Tags: Crit Care Res Pract Source Type: research
Authors: Suzuki H, Kanamaru H, Kawakita F, Asada R, Fujimoto M, Shiba M Abstract Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a serious cerebrovascular disease. Even if SAH patients survive the initial insults, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) may occur at 4 days or later post-SAH. DCI is characteristics of SAH, and is considered to develop by blood breakdown products and inflammatory reactions, or secondary to early brain injury, acute pathophysiological events that occur in the brain within the first 72 hours of aneurysmal SAH. The pathology underlying DCI may involve large artery vasospasm and/or microcircula...
Source: Histology and Histopathology - Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We report good agreement between the values generated using VMTKlab and cerebral angiography for three of the four main variables. Discrepancies in neck diameter are not surprising and its underestimation with a traditional delineation from cerebral angiography has been reported before. PMID: 32996346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Interventional Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Interv Neuroradiol Source Type: research
Isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) represents one-third of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Literature suggests that tSAH does not require aggressive management. Herein, we report our institutional experience over a 10-year period.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Trauma Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: SIRT1 mediates hypoxic preconditioning-induced protection against neurovascular dysfunction after SAH. Resveratrol mimics this neurovascular protection, at least in part, via SIRT1. Activation of SIRT1 is a promising, novel, pleiotropic therapeutic strategy to combat DCI after SAH. PMID: 33010255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: When differences in patient's baseline characteristics are balanced by PS, the variables associated with long-term outcome are year, age, falls from patient´s own height, hypoxia, early deterioration, pupillary abnormalities, basal cistern effacement, compliance to ICP monitoring guidelines and type of surgical approach (craniotomy and pre-emptive DC are associated with better outcome). Patients with an intermediate or worse risk of unfavourable outcome according to their baseline characteristics might achieve better than expected outcome if they undergo pre-emptive DC. PMID: 32972116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Neurosurg Sci Source Type: research
We report here the experience of life-threatening hematochezia in 3 patients who underwent brain surgery in our institution. Patients concerns: One female patient (72-year-old) and 2 male patients (58- and 35-year-old) were admitted to our institution because of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured anterior communicating artery, and subarachnoid hemorrhage with unknown cause respectively. All patients underwent emergency brain surgery for diagnosis and treatment. After surgery, they all experienced long-term bed rest in intensive care unit. Hematochezia occurred on postoperative ...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Since the only proven treatment able to prevent further deterioration from superficial siderosis is to stop chronic bleeding into subarachnoid space, is of paramount importance to establish an early diagnosis of the source of bleeding. Cases of unexplained superficial siderosis of central nervous system should include routine spinal MRI to rule out bleeding of spinal tumor even in asymptomatic patients. Due to severity of potential deterioration caused by superficial siderosis, any tumoral lesion observed on spinal MRI even without documented sings of bleeding should be considered for resection. PMID: 329...
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
Case submitted by Dan Singer MD and Ryan Barnicle MD, Written by Pendell MeyersA woman in her 60s with history of smoking presented to the ED with left sided chest pain radiating to the left arm and back, starting at about 1330. She described the pain as a " heaviness, " without exacerbating or alleviating factors. Her pain at the time of arrival was 10/10.Here is her triage ECG (no prior for comparison):What do you think?Findings: - Sinus rhythm at around 100 bpm - Grossly normal QRS complex - 1.0 mm STE in lead III, and just a hint of STE in aVF (both of which have to be measured just after signi...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
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