Circulating Epigenetic Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: State of the Art and critical Evaluation

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer, which originates from the mesothelial cells of the pleura and is associated with asbestos exposure. In light of its aggressive nature, late diagnosis and dismal prognosis, there is an urgent need for identification of biomarkers in easily accessible samples (such as blood) for early diagnosis of MPM. In the last 10 years, epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs), have gained popularity as possible early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer research. The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the current evidences on circulating epigenetic biomarkers for MPM and on their translational potential to the clinical practice for early diagnosis and for prognosis.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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This study aims to evaluate micronuclei (MN) frequency as a biomarker of genome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes of PM and lung cancer (LC) patients when compared with healthy controls (HCs) and patients with nonneoplastic respiratory diseases (RDs). Lymphocyte cytokinesis-block MN assay was carried out on 317 subjects. Mutagen sensitivity, measured by quantifying MN frequency after an in vitro challenge with ionizing radiation, was evaluated in 252 subjects. A significant increase in MN frequency was observed in cancer patients compared to HCs, with a mean ratio (MR) of 1.35 and 1.36 at baseline and 1.43 and 1....
Source: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology - Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol Source Type: research
British Journal of Cancer, Published online: 04 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41416-020-0912-9Impact of hypoxia on chemoresistance of mesothelioma mediated by the proton-coupled folate transporter, and preclinical activity of new anti-LDH-A compounds
Source: British Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionPeople with cancer residing outside major cities had lower survival from some cancers, which is partly due to the greater socio-economic disadvantage of rural residents.
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a treatment recalcitrant tumor with a poor overall survival (OS). Current approved treatment consists of first line chemotherapy that only modestly increases OS, illustrating the desperate need for other treatment options in MPM. Unfortunately, clinical studies that investigate the effectivity of checkpoint inhibitor (CI) treatment failed to improve clinical outcome over current applied therapies. In general, MPM is characterized as an immunological cold tumor with low T-cell infiltration, which could explain the disappointing results of clinical trials investigating CI treatment in ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Doctors, scientists and occupational health experts from across the country are openly criticizing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s recent asbestos draft risk evaluation. At a virtual press conference arranged by the Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization last week, speakers labeled the asbestos evaluation inadequate and in need of serious revision. The year-long evaluation was required as part of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which was passed in 2016. It amended the original Toxic Substances Control Act, the country’s primary chemicals management law. “I am...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
We examined 329 patients from February 2002 to July 2013. There were 131 MPM cases with ADA levels of 32.29 IU/L; 117 LC cases with ADA levels of 21.12 IU/L; 54 benign disease cases with ADA levels of 20.98 IU/L. A significant difference existed in pleural effusion ADA levels between MPM and benign disease patients. Pleural effusion ADA levels were significantly higher in MPM patients. PMID: 32468861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cancer Investigation - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Invest Source Type: research
Abstract Iron is essential for all the lives on earth but may trigger a switch toward ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated necrosis. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitous enzymes from microbes to humans. The primary function of CAs is to regulate cellular pH by hydrating carbon dioxide (CO2) to protons (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). Furthermore, CAs play roles in biosynthetic reactions, such as gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, ureagenesis and are also associated with tumor metabolism, suggesting that CAs may be a potential target for the treatment of cancers. We have recently revealed a novel function of CA ...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer of the visceral or parietal pleura, with greater than 90% of cases occurring in the setting of asbestos exposure. It is a relatively rare cancer, with an incidence of approximately 10 per 1 million person-years in the United States. It has a long latency period, up to 20 years after asbestos exposure, and the median age of diagnosis is 75 years old. [1,2]
Source: Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
An international, much-anticipated phase III clinical trial that could change standard-of-care treatment for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma will open soon, pending COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The randomized trial will be studying the effectiveness of the immunotherapy drug durvalumab (Imfinzi) when used in combination with chemotherapy drugs pemetrexed (Alimta) and cisplatin for mesothelioma. Opening dates may vary by center because of the COVID-19 pandemic that has slowed or stalled clinical trials everywhere. Durvalumab produces an antibody that helps a patient’s own immune system kill tumor cell...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
Feature Editor's Introduction —Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly fatal cancer of the pleura that has been defeating standard and investigational therapies since its first description. The efficacies of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical therapy are limited, and we have been writing for decades that improve d therapies are needed. MPM is born of inflammation, and approximately 80% of cases are associated with the smoldering tissue inflammatory responses against the carcinogenic fibers of asbestos.
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Invited Expert Opinion Source Type: research
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