Gene therapy beyond luxturna: a new horizon of the treatment for inherited retinal disease

Purpose of review Gene therapy offers, for the first time, the possibility to cure diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. The positive outcomes that led to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Luxturna to treat Leber congenital amaurosis caused by RPE65 mutations created an optimistic atmosphere in the research, clinical and patient community. Despite this first success, we must understand that this is not a ‘one treatment for all’. This review aims to explain the basic concepts of gene therapy and how they translate in different approaches that are utilized in ongoing clinical trials here reviewed. Recent findings In 2017, the FDA approved the first gene therapy treatment. In parallel, other approaches have gained attention. Different delivery methods (adeno-associated virus, lentivirus), injection sites (subretinal, intravitreal, suprachoroidal) and methodologies (gene replacement, silencing, editing) are currently being tested. Summary Gene therapy is an evolving field in medicine and ophthalmology. Its success and application depends on several factors that are specific to the disease to treat. For now, we know it's a relatively safe approach and we look forward to the continued advancements of current ongoing clinical trials.
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: RETINAL, VITREOUS AND MACULAR DISORDERS: Edited by Brandon G. Busbee and John W. Kitchens Source Type: research

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RARITAN, NJ, March 2, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has granted both PRIME (PRIority MEdicines) and Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) designations to the company’s adeno-associated virus (AAV)-RPGR gene therapy product for the treatment of inherited retinal disease X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). PRIME is awarded to increase interactions, optimize development plans and accelerate innovative treatments where there is unmet medical need. Similarly, ATMP status is granted to medicines that are based on gene...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
Human Gene Therapy, Ahead of Print.
Source: Human Gene Therapy - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Petersen-Jones SM, Occelli LM, Biel M, Michalakis S Abstract Mutations in the gene encoding the phosphodiesterase 6 alpha subunit (PDE6A) account for 3-4% of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and currently no treatment is available. There are four animal models for PDE6A-RP: a dog with a frameshift truncating mutation (p.Asn616ThrfsTer39) and three mouse models with missense mutations (Val685Met, Asp562Trp, and Asp670Gly) showing a range of phenotype severities. Initial proof-of-concept gene augmentation studies in the Asp670Gly mouse model and dog model used a subretinally delivered adeno-ass...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is an inherited ocular disease caused by mutations in the RS1 gene which results in the abnormal splitting of the retinal layers. It is the leading cause of macular degeneration in males, and approximately 1:15,000 individuals in the US are affected by this condition.   XLRS causes progressive vision loss, and affected individuals are unable to perform simple daily activities such as reading, writing and driving. This condition can lead to vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment in up to 40% of patients – resulting in total blindness.A current treatment option includes a tissue-s...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Degenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) may lead to blindness without effective treatment. With the rapid advancement of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, in vivo application of CRISPR/Cas9 holds immense potential for treatment of these diseases. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are an ideal gene transfer tool for delivery of CRISPR components to the retina. Here, we describe a protocol for utilizing an AAV-based CRISPR/Cas9 system for in vivo genome editing in the retina. PMID: 30783971 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Lorenz B, Stieger K Abstract Genome editing represents a powerful tool to treat inherited disorders. Highly specific endonucleases induce a DNA double strand break near the mutant site, which is subsequently repaired by cellular DNA repair mechanisms that involve the presence of a wild type template DNA. In vivo applications of this strategy are still rare, in part due to the absence of appropriate animal models carrying human disease mutations and knowledge of the efficient targeting of endonucleases. Here we report the generation and characterization of a new mouse model for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) ...
Source: Translational Research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Transl Res Source Type: research
PMID: 29605170 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
Authors: Chuang K, Fields MA, Del Priore LV Abstract The advent of gene editing has introduced the ability to make changes to the genome of cells, thus allowing for correction of genetic mutations in patients with monogenic diseases. Retinal diseases are particularly suitable for the application of this new technology because many retinal diseases, such as Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), are monogenic. Moreover, gene delivery techniques such as the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been optimized for intraocular use, and phase III trials are well un...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a major cause of blindness that affects 1.5 million people worldwide. Mutations in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel β 1 (CNGB1) cause approximately 4% of autosomal recessive RP. Gene augmentation therapy shows promise for treating inherited retinal degenerations; however, relevant animal models and biomarkers of progression in patients with RP are needed to assess therapeutic outcomes. Here, we evaluated RP patients with CNGB1 mutations for potential biomarkers of progression and compared human phenotypes with those of mouse and dog models of the disease. Additionally, we used gene augmenta...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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