Pneumococcal virulence factors in community-acquired pneumonia

Purpose of review This manuscript reviews the recent literature related to new developments in the understanding of existing and novel virulence factors of the pneumococcus that are of potential importance in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. Recent findings The pneumococcal capsule and pneumolysin have long been recognized as being two of the most prominent virulence factors, with much recent research having revealed previously unrecognized mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathogenesis of infection. Although the pneumococcal capsule has been considered a sine qua non for virulence, the emergence of pathogenic nonencapsulated strains with newly recognized virulence determinants has also been described. Not unexpectedly, but of concern, nonencapsulated strains are unaffected by current pneumococcal vaccines. This, together with the finding of novel virulence factors, as well as new mechanisms of pathogenicity of established virulence determinants, underscores the resilience of the pneumococcus in confronting challenges in its environment, most importantly those posed by antibiotics and vaccines. Summary Recent advances in the understanding of pneumococcal virulence factors provide potential opportunities for the development of novel putative therapeutic or preventive strategies.
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

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Worldwide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) had reduced the incidence of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children.1,2 Despite increasing vaccine coverage and a reduction in the prevalence of IPD, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a significant cause of non-Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children.3 HUS is characterized by the presence of the clinical triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury.
Source: Pediatrics and Neonatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby the canonical NF-κB cascade and a mitochondrial fission pathway interdependently regulate endothelial inflammation. Lin28 as a Target for Nerve Regeneration https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/05/lin28-as-a-target-for-nerve-regeneration/ Researchers here show that the gene Lin28 regulates axon regrowth. In mice, raised levels of Lin28 produce greater regeneration of nerve injuries. Past research has investigated Lin28 from the standpoint of producing a more general improvement in regenerative capacity. It improves mitoch...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The paper here offers a good overview of recent research and development aimed at improving the effectiveness of vaccines in old people. Vaccines are only poorly effective in the old because of the age-related decline of the immune system. A great deal of effort, with only some success, has gone into trying to improve vaccine effectiveness in older populations. Even if tinkering with vaccines boosts the percentage of patients who exhibit an immune response, however, that response is always going to be more anemic than that of a younger person, given the effects of aging on the immune system. This time and funding would per...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
By ANISH KOKA, MD A number of politically tinged narratives have divided physicians during the pandemic. It would be unfortunate if politics obscured the major problem brought into stark relief by the pandemic: a system that marginalizes physicians and strips them of agency. In practices big and small, hospital-employed or private practice, nursing homes or hospitals, there are serious issues raising their heads for doctors and their patients. No masks for you When I walked into my office Thursday, March 12th, I assembled the office staff for the first time to talk about COVID.  The prior weekend had been...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 Medical Practice Physicians Anish Koka medical autonomy Pandemic Source Type: blogs
PMID: 32356685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Infectious diseases are a major cause for morbidity and mortality in the older population. Demographic changes will lead to increasing numbers of older persons over the next decades. Prevention of infections becomes increasingly important to ensure healthy aging for the individual, and to alleviate the socio-economic burden for societies. Undoubtedly, vaccines are the most efficient health care measure to prevent infections. Age-associated changes of the immune system are responsible for decreased immunogenicity and clinical efficacy of most currently used vaccines in older age. Efficacy of standard influenza vaccines is o...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Condition:   Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Interventions:   Biological: 15-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine;   Biological: 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Sponsor:   Beijing Zhifei Lvzhu Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Alex Nowrasteh andAndrew C. ForresterThe international spread of the SARS ‐​CoV‐​2 virus that causes the disease COVID-19 has prompted many governments to close their borders. Immigration policy plays an important role in limiting the international spread of contagious diseases.Prior to the COVID-19 crisis,several commentators were concerned that immigrants – especially illegal immigrants – were spreading serious diseases in the United States. This blog post is the first in a series to answer the question of whether immigrants spread serious notifiable diseases other than COVID-19 in the ...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsCanadian PCV programs have provided significant health benefits and resulted in a substantial value for money. Net savings achieved over the reviewed period would have provided funding for $1.76  billion in other health care costs or public health initiatives. These findings highlight the importance of considering the total value of a vaccination program, rather than vaccine acquisition costs only, when assessing the value of immunization programs.
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Despite vaccination programs, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains among the main microorganisms involved in bacterial pneumonia, notably in terms of severity. The prognosis of pneumococcal infections is conditioned ...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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