Challenges in identification of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. in Lebanon.

This study aimed to evaluate the routine identification tools available in Lebanon for differentiation of Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. The identification of 43 isolates defined as Shigella spp. by Api 20E was accessed using MALDI-TOF, serological testing, duplex PCR targeting ipaH (present in Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E. coli "EIEC") and lacY (found in E. coli including EIEC but not Shigella spp.) as well as gyrB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated as well as Shiga-toxin production. All isolates were identified as E. coli by MALDI-TOF while the PCR showed a disparate group of 26 EIEC, 11 Shigella spp., 5 E. coli and 1 inactive E. coli. However, the sequencing of gyrB gene, which was recently described as a suitable marker for distinguishing E. coli and Shigella spp., identified all isolates as E. coli. Antibiotic resistance was noticeable against ß-lactams, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common variants of beta-lactamase genes were blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, and blaCTX-M-3. A great discordance between the used methods in identification was revealed herein. An accurate identification technique able to distinguish E. coli from Shigella spp. in routine laboratories is a pressing need in order to select the appropriate treatment and assess the epidemiology of these bacteria. PMID: 32223306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

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This study reports the effects of early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on the colonic microbiota, intestinal function and mucosal immunity in suckling piglets. A total of 60 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire suckling piglets from six sows were assigned to the control (CON) and LF groups in litters. The LF group piglets were fed 0.5 g/kg body weight of LF solution per day, and the CON group piglets were fed the same dose of physiological saline for a week. Six piglets from the two groups were randomly chosen and euthanised on days 8 and 21. The LF group piglets had higher ACE and Chao1 indices of colonic mic...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum-12 exopolysaccharides (L-EPS) and S. flexneri exopolysaccharides (S-EPS) on the S. flexneri CMCC51574 biofilm formation were investigated. The results showed that L-EPS could decrease the polysaccharides production in the extracellular polymeric matrix of S. flexneri, and inhibit the biofilm formation of S. flexneri L-EPS could decrease the minimum biofilm elimination concentration (MBEC) of the antibiotics against S. flexneri biofilm and inhibit S. flexneri adhesion and invasion to the HT-29 cell monolayers, which might be ascribed to the S. flexneri biofilm disturbanc...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Infants with gastroschisis require operations and lengthy hospitalizations due to intestinal dysmotility. Dysbiosis may contribute to these problems. Little is known on the microbiome of gastroschisis infants. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the fecal microbiome in gastroschisis infants. Microbiome profiling was performed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiome of gastroschisis infants was compared to the microbiome of healthy controls, and the effects of mode of birth delivery, gestational age, antibiotic duration, and nutrition type on micr...
Source: JPEN Journal Of Parenteral And Enteral Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr Source Type: research
This article aims to elucidate the possible role of cockroaches in food-borne infections by reviewing the relevant research publications. PMID: 32425541 [PubMed]
Source: Environmental Health Insights - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research
Abstract In jawless vertebrates, the lamprey complement component C1q (LC1q) acts as a lectin and activates lamprey complement component C3 (LC3) in association with mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP) via the lectin pathway. Furthermore, LC1q may interact with variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB) in a complex with antigens and mediate the activation of LC3, leading to cytolysis. In the present study, we found, for the first time, that LC1q plays a critical role in VLRA/VLRC-mediated immune response. Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida,...
Source: Developmental and Comparative Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Dev Comp Immunol Source Type: research
Host defense peptides, abundantly secreted by colonic epithelial cells and leukocytes, are proposed to be critical components of an innate immune response in the colon against enteropathogenic bacteria, including Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Clostridium difficile, and attaching and effacing Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium. These short cationic peptides are bactericidal against both Gram-positive and -negative enteric pathogens, but may also exert killing effects on intestinal luminal microbiota. Simultaneously, these peptides modulate numerous cellular responses crucial for gut defenses, including leukocyte c...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We examined a cohort of young children from Mirzapur, Bangladesh, prospectively over 18 months. Four fecal markers of environmental enteropathy (EE) (high levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin, calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and neopterin) were examined and anthropometric measures obtained from a cohort of 68 children. The 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was sequenced from stool samples and used to estimate amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). We age-matched children with poor growth to children with normal growth within 1 month and compared the change in abundance and diversity of ASVs over time. Elevated EE markers and poor linear ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Human gut bacteria contribute significantly to human health and several studies have evaluated the effects of dietary fibers on human gut bacterial ecology. However, the relationship between different degrees of fiber polymerization and human gut bacteria is unknown. Here, we analyzed three fiber substrates with different degrees of polymerization, namely carboxymethylcellulose, β-glucans, and galactooligosaccharides. To probe the in vitro influence of the degree of polymerization of the fiber on human gut bacteria, we measured the pH, air pressure, and short-chain fatty acid content of fecal fermentation supplemented...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: 12 May 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 31, Issue 6Author(s): Sonja Kühn, John Bergqvist, Magdalena Gil, Camila Valenzuela, Laura Barrio, Stéphanie Lebreton, Chiara Zurzolo, Jost Enninga
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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