Babies with brain tumors could benefit from targeted treatment

(Institute of Cancer Research) Brain cancer in infants is biologically distinct from other childhood brain tumors and could be successfully treated with targeted drugs, a new study has shown. In the largest and most comprehensive study of infant gliomas to date, scientists found that these tumors are molecularly different from those in older children, helping explain why they tend to be less aggressive.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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ConclusionsWe propose that pathogenicPTEN variants may predispose to medulloblastoma, and show that remission was reached with current treatment protocols. ThePTEN gene should be included in the genetic testing provided to patients who develop medulloblastoma at an early age. We recommend brain magnetic resonance imaging upon an unexpected acceleration of growth of head circumference for pediatric patients harboring pathogenic germlinePTEN variants.
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: CLINICAL REPORT Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: On brain MR imaging, these patients have both highly characteristic intra-axial tumors (typically multifocal high-grade gliomas) and nonspecific findings, some of which might represent early stages of neoplastic transformation. The incidence of developmental venous anomalies is high in these patients for unclear reasons. Awareness of these imaging findings, especially in combination, is important to raise the suspicion of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency in routine diagnostic imaging evaluation or surveillance imaging studies of asymptomatic carriers because early identification of the phenotypic &quo...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: PEDIATRICS Source Type: research
Abstract Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor which accounts for about 10-20% of childhood brain tumors. The survival rate for DIPG remains very poor, with a median survival of less than 1 year. The dismal prognosis associated with DIPG has been exacerbated by the failure of a large number of clinical trials to meaningfully improve survival compared with radiotherapy, the current standard of care for DIPG. In the current study, we screened a natural product library and for the first time identified 6 natural compounds displaying inhibitory effects on DIPG pr...
Source: Bioorganic Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Chem Source Type: research
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is a lethal childhood brain cancer with dismal prognosis and MR imaging is the primary methodology used for diagnosis and monitoring. Our aim was to determine whether advanced diffusion, perfusion, and permeability MR imaging metrics predict survival and pseudoprogression in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical trial using the poly (adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor veliparib concurrently with radiation therapy, followed by maintenance therapy with veliparib + temozolomide, in child...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: FUNCTIONAL Source Type: research
Conclusions: Brain tumors especially germinoma are associated with the development of hypothalamic–pituitary antibodies and pituitary defects. The correct interpretation of APA/AHA antibodies is essential to avoid a misdiagnosis of an autoimmune infundibulo-neurohypophysitis or pituitary hypophysitis in patients with germinoma.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
(Johns Hopkins Medicine) In experiments with human cells and mice, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center report evidence that combining the experimental cancer medication TAK228 (also called sapanisertib) with an existing anti-cancer drug called trametinib may be more effective than either drug alone in decreasing the growth of pediatric low-grade gliomas.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Abstract PURPOSE: Pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG) is the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. Patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive pLGG may benefit from treatment with dabrafenib. Part 2 of a phase I/IIa study, open-label study (NCT01677741) explores the activity and safety of dabrafenib treatment in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ages 1 to
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
After using computer algorithms to sour through 9,000 possible drug combinations, Stanfors scientists found a pair with potential for treating diffuse intrinsic glioma, a rare and lethal childhood cancer.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
(NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)) Researchers have devised a new, promising plan of attack against deadly childhood brain cancers called diffuse midline gliomas (DMG). NCATS and Stanford University scientists and their colleagues showed that combining two drugs killed DMG patient cells grown in the laboratory and in animal models. The drugs countered the effects of a genetic mutation that causes the diseases. Their studies also uncovered an unrecognized vulnerability in the cancer cells that scientists may be able to exploit.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
CCR Grand Rounds Dr. Jabado ’ s research focuses on elucidating genetic signatures of pediatric astrocytomas and examining how they compare to adults. These are deadly brain tumors that originate in the brain and include glioblastomas (GBM, the highest grade of astrocytomas), which are one of the deadliest cancers in humans. Her group uncovered that pediatric high-grade astrocytomas (HGA) are molecularly and genetically distinct from adult tumors. They also identified a new molecular mechanism driving pediatric HGA, namely recurrent somatic driver mutations in the tail of histone 3 variants (H3.3 and H3.1). These mut...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
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