Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients With Surgically Altered Anatomy
AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review describes the recent advances and evolving techniques in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered anatomy (SAA) and highlights the novel alternative approaches for pancreato-biliary interventions in this group of patients.Recent findingsThe limitations of ERCP in patients with SAA have led to the development of improved endoscopic devices and accessories, and alternative approaches for pancreato-biliary interventions. Dedicated short-type single and double balloon enteroscopes (BE) have been developed with increased maneuverability and larger accessory channels that enhance scope insertion and allow the use of various ERCP devices, respectively. In failed BE-ERCP cases, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been used to gain access to the pancreato-biliary system, with high reported procedural success. More recently, lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has been used to create a temporary bridge to the excluded stomach in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and the small bowel loop in other altered GI anatomy, through which conventional ERCP can be performed, with excellent preliminary results.SummarySeveral novel approaches and techniques are developed and being evaluated for pancreato-biliary intervention in patients with SAA. The optimal approach should be considered based on patient history, institutional factors, and multidisciplinary collaboration.
CONCLUSIONS: duodenal self-expandable and lumen-apposing metal stents can be used for single-deferred endoscopic ultrasound-directed transgastric ERCP in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID: 32022574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Conclusion Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the technical and clinical success of EDGE procedure is better than BE-ERCP and comparable to that of LA-ERCP in RYGB patients. EDGE also has a similar safety profile as compared to LA-ERCP but has higher AE rate as compared to BE-ERCP. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents | Abstract | open access Full text
ConclusionBariatric surgery results in CBD dilation, with changes more pronounced after RYGB. Biliary dilation occurs irrespective of cholecystectomy status. Further work is necessary to determine the cause and clinical implications of this phenomenon.
Conclusion EDGE was the most cost-effective modality in post-RYGB anatomy for treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases compared with DAE-ERCP and LA-ERCP. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that this conclusion was robust to changes in important model parameters. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents | Abstract | Full text
ConclusionTransgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP is a feasible procedure with low complication rates and is used in treating patients with altered RYGB anatomy who present with biliary tract disorders. The use of transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP allows endoscopic treatment and cholecystectomy to be performed in a single setting.
ConclusionsGATE appears to be a safe and effective procedure and may be considered the preferred approach to ERCP in patients with RYGB anatomy at centers with LAMS experience. The procedure offers more definitive and higher range of ERCP interventions compared to traditional methods and is associated with fewer adverse events. Improvements in strategies and methods with the GATE technique may reduce risks and improve outcomes.
Conclusions: This study suggests that the EDGE procedure has similar technical success and adverse events compared with LA-ERCP with the benefit of significantly shorter procedure times and hospital stay. EDGE may offer a minimally invasive, effective option, with less resource utilization, and without significant weight gain.
Authors: Nabi Z, Reddy DN Abstract Malignancies of the pancreatobiliary system are usually unresectable at the time of diagnosis. As a consequence, a majority of these cases are candidates for palliative care. With advances in chemotherapeutic agents and multidisciplinary care, the survival rate in pancreatobiliary malignancies has improved. Therefore, there is a need to provide an effective and long-lasting palliative care for these patients. Endoscopic palliation is preferred to surgery as the former is associated with equal efficacy and reduced morbidity. The main role of endoscopic palliation in the vast majori...
Purpose of review The present review describes the current and evolving techniques available in approaching endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) anatomy. Recent findings Recent studies have demonstrated that device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) approaches have high failures rates when performing ERCP, but are currently considered the first-line approach for patients with RYGB anatomy because of lower costs and risks compared to surgery. In contrast, laparoscopicy-assisted-ERCP (LA-ERCP) exhibits high technical success rates but carries surgical risks and ...
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) directed transgastric ERCP (EDGE) is an alternative method of accessing the remnant stomach to perform transpapillary ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In EDGE, the distal flange of a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) is placed in the remnant stomach and the proximal flange theoretically in the gastric pouch. Due to anatomic considerations, better visualization of the remnant stomach may lead to inadvertent or volitional transjejunal LAMS deployment. LAMS access route and its potential effects on adverse outcomes have not been studied.