The roles of neuron-NG2 glia synapses in promoting oligodendrocyte development and remyelination

AbstractNG2 immunopositive progenitor cells, also simply termed as NG2 glia and thought mainly to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), form synaptic connections with neurons in gray and white matters of brain. One of the most classical features of oligodendrocyte lineage cells is myelination, which will favor neuronal signaling transmission. Thus, is there a causal link between the specific synapses of neuron-NG2 glia and myelination? Building on this, here, we will discuss several relevant issues. First, in order to understand the synapses, it is necessary to integrate the definite inputs onto NG2 glia. We show that the synaptic activities and myelination are not synchronized, so the synapses are more likely to regulate early development of NG2 glia and prepare for myelination. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that the synapses also play a role in recovery of pathological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, elucidating the activities of neuron-NG2 glia synapses will be beneficial for both physiological and pathological conditions.Graphical abstractThe existence of neuron-NG2 glia synapses reveals that the neuronal activities projecting to NG2 glia is an elaborate regulation, and the signaling from neurons to NG2 glia is frequent in early stage. The neuron-NG2 glia synapses indirectly provide a basic condition to support myelination by extrasynaptic communication. The neuron-NG2 glia synapses also promote remyelination, and it occurs simil...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research

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Purpose of review This review aims to update the studies involving the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in neurogenic patients, published in the last two years. Recent findings Treatment of neurogenic LUTS (NLUTS) patients with β3 adrenoreceptor agonists was investigated in real-life conditions. A randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of antimuscarinics versus onabotulinum toxin A in neurogenic patients. The use of desmopressin to treat nocturia in multiple sclerosis patients is also reported. The long-term treatment with BontA efficacy, its discontinuation, and possible strategies to ...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: NEUROUROLOGY AND INCONTINENCE: Edited by John Heesakkers and Frank Martens Source Type: research
Authors: Fonti GL, Chimenti MS, Greco E, Boffa L, Conigliaro P, Triggianese P, Perricone R PMID: 32452349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
Authors: Macaluso F, Guggino G, Ciccia F PMID: 32452343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
             Basel, 28 May 2020 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval of a new, shorter two-hour OCREVUS ® (ocrelizumab) infusion time, dosed twice yearly, for relapsing or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The approval is based on a positive opinion from the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP).“The approval of a shorter, two-hour infusion time for OCREVUS in Europe, dosed twice yearly, will further improve the treatment experience for patients while als...
Source: Roche Media News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Authors: Zanghì A, Cimino S, Urzì D, Privitera S, Zagari F, Lanza G, Patti F, D'Amico E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) manifests with a plethora of signs and symptoms affecting brain structures and spinal pathways. The multitude of lesions in MS patients makes difficult to establish the relative role of each of them to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Generally, the subcortical white-matter lesions result in detrusor overactivity, whilst lesions of the spinal cord result in the combined occurrence of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). It has been estima...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
A multiple sclerosis patient infected by SARS-CoV-2 during fingolimod therapy was hospitalized with moderate clinical features, and recovered in 15  days. High levels of CCL5 and CCL10 chemokines and of antibody-secreting B cells were detected, while the levels other B- and T-cell subsets were comparable to that of appropriate controls. However, CD4+ and CD8+ cells were oligoclonally expanded and prone to apoptosis when stimulated in vitro. T his study suggests that fingolimod-immunosuppressed patients, despite the low circulating lymphocytes, may rapidly expand antibody-secreting cells and mount an effective immune resp...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Authors: de Sire A, Mauro A, Priano L, Baudo S, Bigoni M, Solaro C Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, characterized by demyelinization and axonal loss resulting, in 66% of cases, in upper limb motor impairment. The effects of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) have recently been investigated in MS patients. The aim of this randomized single-blind pilot study was to assess the effects of CIMT on upper limb activity, specifically smoothness of movement, in patients affected by progressive MS. Patients affected by MS, and reporting reduced use primarily of one ...
Source: Functional Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Including selected drugs in risk adjustment improved the models’ predictive power. In addition, inclusion of selected drugs may discourage insurers from using formulary and drug benefit design to avoid enrollment of patients taking high-cost drugs, such as for HIV, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, and improve access for enrollees taking these drugs. Adding RXCs also may improve plan risk measurement for plans with less complete diagnosis reporting.
Source: Medical Care - Category: Health Management Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Elizabeth S. Gromisch, Joseph F. Kulas, Hamada Altalib, Robert D. Kerns, Kristin M. Mattocks, Cynthia A. Brandt, Sally Haskell
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Andréa Gomes Moraes, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, Robert W. Motl, Carlos Bernardo Tauil, Felipe von Glehn Silva, Éber Castro Corrêa, Ana Cristina de David
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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