Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 389: Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in Pastoralist Flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection

This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua—a term for rinderpest, olkipiei—lung disease, oloirobi—fever, enkorotik—diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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DiscussionThis review will provide a comprehensive examination of a possible association between suboptimal household flooring and increased risk of enteric pathogen infection, highlight gaps for future research in high risk areas, and inform intervention design for future planned studies in Kenya and/or elsewhere in the region.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO registration number: CRD42019156437
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionThe communities targeted by this study showed a range ofSchistosoma prevalence ’s of infection, from hypo-endemic through to meso-endemic and hyper-endemic. The prevalence of SCH across the different age groups in the study locations highlights the large number of individuals currently being left out of the standard morbidity control method of annual treatment of the SAC.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Home fortification of foods with MNP is an effective intervention for reducing anaemia and iron deficiency in children younger than two years of age. Providing MNP is better than providing no intervention or placebo and may be comparable to using daily iron supplementation. The benefits of this intervention as a child survival strategy or for developmental outcomes are unclear. Further investigation of morbidity outcomes, including malaria and diarrhoea, is needed. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements a...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
We present the case of a 30-year-old Bissau-Guinean man with HIV-2 infection known for 16 years, irregularly treated, admitted with two weeks of fever, diarrhoea and cutaneous lesions. Examination revealed multiple subcutaneous nodes, Molluscum contagiosum-like lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy and painful palpation of the left iliac fossa. Laboratory tests showed severe nonhaemolytic anaemia and CD4+ count of 9/mm3, with normal creatinine and hepatic enzymes. Chest roentgenogram was unremarkable and a research for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by GeneXpert® was negative. Nonetheless, given the lack of further diagnost...
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractIn Autumn 2011, nonspecific clinical signs of pyrexia, diarrhoea, and drop in milk yield were observed in dairy cattle near the German town of Schmallenberg at the Dutch/German border. Targeted veterinary diagnostic investigations for classical endemic and emerging viruses could not identify a causal agent. Blood samples were collected from animals with clinical signs and subjected to metagenomic analysis; a novel orthobunyavirus was identified and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). In late 2011/early 2012, an epidemic of abortions and congenital malformations in calves, lambs and goat kids, characterised by arthrogr...
Source: Irish Veterinary Journal - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The un-encapsidated TWiV Humans discuss finding hepatitis D virus-related sequences in birds and snakes, and fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by a coronavirus of bat origin. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode European Virus Archive ASV early bird registrationends 15 May FDA approves Dengvaxia Divergent hepatitis D-like agentin birds(Viruses) Novel deltavirus in snakes(mBio) SADS-coronavirusin piglets (Nature) Hosts and...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
AbstractTo explore the regional spread of endemic pathogens, investigations are required both at within and between population levels. The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is such a pathogen, spreading among cattle herds mainly due to trade movements and neighbourhood contacts, and causing an endemic disease with economic consequences. To assess the contribution of both transmission routes on BVDV regional and local spread, we developed an original epidemiological model combining data-driven and mechanistic approaches, accounting for heterogeneous within-herd dynamics, animal movements and neighbourhood contacts. Extens...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Enrica Sozzi, Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Simona Perulli, Alice Prosperi, Emiliana Brocchi, Lorenzo Capucci, Alice Papetti, Enrico Giacomini, Giovanni Loris Alborali, Antonio LavazzaAbstractPorcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae and causes severe diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative newborn piglets. Thus, a precise and rapid diagnosis of PEDV infection is important for the application of control measures to limit viral disseminati...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study reports socio-economic factors, medical history and chemical composition of urinary stones in 976 infants of up to 2 years of age. Between 1992 and 2016, 976 infants presented to our institute with 1038 stones. Chemical composition of stones was analyzed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mean age of infants was 19.5 ± 5.74 months with a M:F ratio of 5.5:1. Half (50%) of the infants were rural dwellers, 90% belonged to low socio-economic class and 70% were malnourished. A history of chronic diarrhoea was reporte d in 13% and urinary tract infections in 5%. The ...
Source: Urolithiasis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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