Migration and first-year maternal mortality among HIV-positive postpartum women: A population-based longitudinal study in rural South Africa

ConclusionsIn this study, we found that a substantial portion of peripartum women moved within the country around the time of delivery and experienced a significantly higher risk of mortality. Despite the scale-up of universal ART and declining trends in maternal mortality, there is an urgent need to derive a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this finding and to develop targeted interventions for mobile HIV-positive peripartum women.
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Authors: Kalinjuma AV, Glass TR, Weisser M, Myeya SJ, Kasuga B, Kisung'a Y, Sikalengo G, Katende A, Battegay M, Vanobberghen F, KIULARCO Study Group Abstract INTRODUCTION: Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves health outcomes for HIV-positive individuals, but is jeopardized by irregular clinic attendance and hence poor adherence. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is typically defined retrospectively but this may lead to biased inferences. We assessed incidence of and factors associated with LTFU, prospectively and accounting for recurrent LTFU episodes, in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) o...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A number of new tools and strategies to make TPT a standard of care in HIV programmes have become available. The new TPT regimens are safe and effective and can be used with current ART, with attention being paid to potential drug-drug interactions between rifamycins and some classes of antiretrovirals. More research and development is needed to optimize TPT for small children, pregnant women and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB). Effective programmatic scale-up can be supported through context-adapted demand creation strategies and the inclusion of TPT in client-centred services, such as differentiated service delive...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Pathology - Research and Practice, Volume 216, Issue 1Author(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was init...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this study documents the first example of a successful PPP with government partnership in a high-income country to address undocumented migrants ’ lack of access to health services in general and HIV care in particular. In light of the intensification of North-South migration, this Israeli case study could be useful for other countries facing similar challenges. It also has lessons within Israel, as the country grapples with other health p roblems among uninsured communities.
Source: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Although ART scale-up was temporally associated with a decline in TB notification rates, the achieved rates of decline are below those required to achieve the End TB Targets. Additional investments in tuberculosis control should include efforts to promote earlier care seeking and ART initiation among HIV-positive persons. PMID: 31529618 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Hui Wang, Rani KanthanAbstractAmoebiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, though a relatively common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions, is uncommon in the developed countries. In these countries, as amoebic colitis shares similar clinical symptoms and endoscopic features with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these cases can be easily unrecognized and misdiagnosed.In this case report, we discuss the case of an adult patient with invasive intestinal amoebiasis, who was initia...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
This study aimed to analyze characteristics and factors associated with late initiation of ART among HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included PLHIV older than 17 years who initiated ART at two public health facilities from 2009 to 2012, in a city located in Midwestern Brazil. Pregnant women were excluded. Data were collected from medical records, antiviral dispensing forms, and the Logistics Control of Medications System (SICLOM) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Late initiation of ART was defined as CD4+ cell count
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In a country with high TB incidence, such as the RM, the phisicians shall manifest an increased vigilance to pregnant women showing the suggestive symptoms of TB.References:1. Bothlamey, G.H el al. MBC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016 16:304Abreviations:MDRTB-Multidrug-resistant TBRM-Republic of Moldova
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Conclusion: High resistance upon second-line failure exists at levels above and below guideline-recommended virologic-failure threshold, impacting future treatment options. Optimization of care should include increased viral load monitoring, resistance testing and third-line ART access, and consideration of lowering the virologic failure threshold, though this demands further investigation.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research
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