Mechanism of demyelination and remyelination in multiple sclerosis

We examined the oligodendrocyte‐mediated demyelination and axonal injury. To address this issue, we established a new scanning electron microscopy analysis to observe ultrastructural myelin morphology. In addition, we focused on kallik rein 6, a serine protease, secreted by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and proposed a new molecular mechanism of kallikrein 6‐mediated demyelination. In this article, we discuss the pathological roles of oligodendrocytes in mouse models of EAE. We also highlight recent findings of abnormal myelin formation and axonal injury in EAE.
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

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Complications involving the central nervous system (CNS) occur in 9–14% of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including stroke-like episodes, demyelination, encephalitis, and nonspecific neurological symptoms. Here we report a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) like relapsing remitting encephalomyelitis following allogeneic HSCT, which did not respond to disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and “domino” autologous HSCT. A 53-year-old male was treated with allogeneic HSCT for lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Ten months later he presented with ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: 18F-FAC PET can visualize brain-infiltrating leukocytes in a mouse MS model and can monitor the response of these cells to an immunomodulatory drug. Translating this strategy into humans will require exploring additional radiotracers.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Source Type: research
Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease marked by progressive neurocognitive injury. Treatment options affording neuroprotective effects remain largely experimental. The purpose of this proof of concept study was to explore the effects of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) and symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).Methods: Twenty-four patients with MS were randomized to either NAC plus standard of care, or standard of care only (waitlist control). The experimental group received NAC intravenously once per week and orally the other 6 days. Patients in both groups...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data suggest that DKI and microstructural modeling can provide a unique contrast capable of detecting EAE-specific changes correlating with clinical disability.
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Valtteri Kaasinen, Juho Joutsa, Eero Rissanen, Laura Airas, Merja Soilu-Hänninen, Tommi NoponenAbstractDopamine has a modulatory role in a number of autoimmune diseases, but there are no published cases of longitudinal dopaminergic imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we report a patient with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) who was scanned twice with brain dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with an interval of four years. The results showed a loss of trace...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Robert H.F. Carvalho, Caroline C. Real, Simone Cinini, Alexandre T. Garcez, Fabio L.S. Duran, Fabio L.N. Marques, Luiz Eugênio Mello, Geraldo Busatto Filho, Erik F.J. de Vries, Luiz R.G. de Britto, Carlos A. Buchpiguel, Daniele de Paula FariaAbstractBackgroundMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Its diagnosis is clinical, often confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This image modality, however, is not ideal for discrimination of demyelination in gre...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
1506bObjectives: Myeloid cells (e.g. macrophages, neutrophils, microglia) of the innate immune system are vital to the initiation and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS)1. Existing imaging strategies for detecting myeloid cells lack cell specificity and cannot distinguish between beneficial and toxic immune responses. Thus, new imaging biomarkers that specifically identify myeloid cells and their activation states are critical for disease staging and therapy monitoring. We recently identified triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM1) as a highly specific marker of pro-inflammatory myeloid cells and subseq...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Neurology & amp; Psychiatry Imaging Posters Source Type: research
Conclusion: [11C]MeDAS-PET and 3-[18F]-4-AP-PET imaging are well correlated, which can be used for cross-validation for imaging of demyelination in the spinal cord.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Basic Science (Neurosciences) Posters Source Type: research
Conclusion Although GWAS contributed insight into the utility of the genotype biomarker to treatment selection, adequately powered prospective studies will be required before clinical application of pharmacogenomics can become a reality. Genotype and phenotype assessment should be facilitated by the availability of detailed molecular analyses and data integration. Careful assessment of prospective GWAS data is essential to integrate findings into the clinical decision-making process, and thereby optimizing the treatment of patients with psoriasis in the future. Author Contributions BY, NG, and WY performed the project. ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Alwin Kamermans, Merel Rijnsburger, Ananya Chakraborty, Susanne van der Pol, Helga E. de Vries† and Jack van Horssen*† Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, MS Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the presence of focal demyelinated plaques. Sufficient clearance of myelin and cellular debris is one of the requirements for proper tissue repair and remyelination. The mechanisms underlying the clearance of ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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