Perivenous demyelination: Association with anti ‐myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody

AbstractBy the discovery of an antibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the clinical and radiological findings of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) such as diffuse cerebral or longitudinally extended spinal cord lesions had been clarified as distinct features from multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological studies in NMO demonstrated loss of immunoreactivity to AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein but a relative preservation of myelin basic protein, especially at the lesions with perivascular deposition of immunoglobulins and complements, suggesting autoimmune disease against astrocytes. In recent years, the antibody against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) has been studied for its association with acute demyelinating diseases such as acute or multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM/MDEM), optic neuritis, AQP4 antibody –negative NMOSD, and brainstem or cerebral cortical encephalomyelitis. We could identify the dominance of perivenous inflammatory demyelination like ADEM in our biopsied case series with MOG antibody. In recent brain‐biopsied cases with MOG antibody, the deposition of humoral immunity, perivascu lar inflammation, and perivenous demyelination were observed especially in atypical cases including cortical encephalitis or disseminated encephalitis. In this review, we focus on MOG antibody–related diseases, which we considered it as a differentiated disease from MS by means of the disease‐sp ecific autoantibody and the distinct pathophysiology.
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

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Purpose of review To systematically review the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor Type A (GABAA) autoimmune encephalitis with a focus on recent data. Recent findings In a review of published reports, we identified 50 cases of anti-GABAA receptor encephalitis with clinical features reported. The median age at presentation was 47 years old (range, 2.5 months–88 years old), 64% were adults, 36% were children and it occurred in both males and females. Eight-two percent (41/50) presented with seizures, 72% (36/50) with encephalopathy, and 58% (29/50) with both. Of th...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: CNS INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS OUTSIDE MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Edited by Bruce T. Volpe Source Type: research
Complications involving the central nervous system (CNS) occur in 9–14% of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including stroke-like episodes, demyelination, encephalitis, and nonspecific neurological symptoms. Here we report a case of multiple sclerosis (MS) like relapsing remitting encephalomyelitis following allogeneic HSCT, which did not respond to disease modifying therapies (DMTs) and “domino” autologous HSCT. A 53-year-old male was treated with allogeneic HSCT for lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Ten months later he presented with ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Chi Hou, Wenlin Wu, Yang Tian, Yani Zhang, Haixia Zhu, Yiru Zeng, Bingwei Peng, Kelu Zheng, Xiaojing Li, Wenxiong ChenAbstractObjective: To analyze the clinical features in children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG ab).Methods: Clinical data of 7 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with MOG ab(+) were collected in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from January, 2016 to June, 2019. Children with NMDAR ab(+)/MOG ab(-) and MOG ab(+)/NMD...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Bonaventure Ip, Crystal Lam, Vincent Ip, Anne Chan, Vincent Mok, Elaine Au, Eric Chan, Alexander LauAbstractAutoimmune encephalitis is an important group of disease that can mimic infectious encephalitis, with one of the most severe forms being meningoencephalomyelitis. One of the recently identified biomarkers, glial fibillary acidic protein (GFAP), targets the cytosolic intermediate filament protein of astrocytes and causes a variety of clinical symptoms. Here, we report an adult Chinese woman presented with acut...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
We present the case of a 35-year-old patient who was seronegative for MOG-IgG (as confirmed by means of three independent immunoassays) during two corticosteroid-responsive attacks of brainstem encephalitis and optic neuritis, respectively, but turned positive for MOG-IgG under treatment with interferon-beta (IFN-beta), which was commenced 6 months after onset of the first attack. MOG-IgG serum levels declined after therapy was switched to glatiramer acetate. The fact that seroconversion was first observed under treatment with IFN-beta is in accordance with previous evidence suggesting a role of IFN-beta in disease exacerb...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration and complex etiology likely involving genetic and environmental factors. MS has been associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, with patients often showing enhanced responses to EBV antigens. To determine whether abnormal EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) humoral immunity can serve as an initiator of autoimmune responses in MS, we investigated the fine specificities of the humoral immune response against EBNA-1 in MS patients using solid phase epitope mapping. Antibodies from MS patients recognized an E...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 383-390 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687842Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are classically associated with immunosuppression arising from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and with various hematologic malignancies. However, over the past few years, they are increasingly associated with transplantation and various immunosuppressive treatments used to treat autoimmune diseases. They cause significant morbidity and mortality and remain a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical signs and symptoms of infection and mimicry by various noninfectious causes. The pathogens a...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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