Virus-Induced T Cell-Mediated Heterologous Immunity and Vaccine Development

Heterologous immunity (H.I.) is a consequence of an encounter with a specific antigen, which can alter the subsequent immune response to a different antigen. This can happen at the innate immune system level—often called trained immunity or innate immune memory—and/or at the adaptive immune system level involving T memory cells and antibodies. Viruses may also induce T cell-mediated H.I., which can confer protection or drive immunopathology against other virus subtypes, related or unrelated viruses, other pathogens, auto- or allo-antigens. It is important to understand the underlying mechanisms for the development of antiviral “universal” vaccines and broader T cell responses rather than just subtype-specific antibody responses as in the case of influenza. Furthermore, knowledge about determinants of vaccine-mediated H.I. may inform public health policies and provide suggestions for repurposing existing vaccines. Here, we introduce H.I. and provide an overview of evidence on virus- and antiviral vaccine-induced T cell-mediated cross-reactive responses. We also discuss the factors influencing final clinical outcome of virus-mediated H.I. as well as non-specific beneficial effects of live attenuated antiviral vaccines such as measles and vaccinia. Available epidemiological and mechanistic data have implications both for the development of new vaccines and for personalized vaccinology, which are presented. Finally, we formulate future research priorities ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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In Michigan, fewer than half of infants 5 months or younger are up to date on their vaccinations, which may allow for outbreaks in diseases like measles.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Measles Children and Childhood Vaccination and Immunization Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Preventive Medicine Epidemics Influenza Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Michigan Source Type: news
Here’s betting you wouldn’t want anyone blowing smallpox scabs up your nose. But you might feel differently if you lived in 15th century China. Long ago, the Chinese recognized that people who had contracted smallpox once were immune to reinfection. They came up with the idea of preserving scabs from individuals who had suffered mild cases, drying them out, crushing them to a powder and blowing them up the nostril. For boys it was the right nostril, for girls it was the left because, well, 15th century. That is how the story of vaccines usually begins, though that version is decidedly incomplete. For one thing,...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Explainer health Source Type: news
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
han Live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have achieved remarkable successes in controlling virus spread, as well as for other applications such as cancer immunotherapy. However, with rapid increases in international travel, globalization, geographic spread of viral vectors, and widespread use of vaccines, there is an increasing need to consider how pre-exposure to viruses which share similar antigenic regions can impact vaccine efficacy. Pre-existing antibodies, derived from either from maternal–fetal transmission, or by previous infection or vaccination, have been demonstrated to interfere with vaccine immunogeni...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This article originally appeared on The Bulwark here. The post The False Choice Between Science And Economics appeared first on The Health Care Blog.
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 Health Policy David Shaywitz Source Type: blogs
In early April, about four months after a new, highly infectious coronavirus was first identified in China, an international group of scientists reported encouraging results from a study of an experimental drug for treating the viral disease known as COVID-19. It was a small study, reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, but showed that remdesivir, an unapproved drug that was originally developed to fight Ebola, helped 68% of patients with severe breathing problems due to COVID-19 to improve; 60% of those who relied on a ventilator to breathe and took the drug were able to wean themselves off the machines after 18...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
Alex Nowrasteh andAndrew C. ForresterThe international spread of the SARS ‐​CoV‐​2 virus that causes the disease COVID-19 has prompted many governments to close their borders. Immigration policy plays an important role in limiting the international spread of contagious diseases.Prior to the COVID-19 crisis,several commentators were concerned that immigrants – especially illegal immigrants – were spreading serious diseases in the United States. This blog post is the first in a series to answer the question of whether immigrants spread serious notifiable diseases other than COVID-19 in the ...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
Authors: Schlipköter U, Flahault A Abstract The past two centuries have seen enormous achievements in control of infectious diseases, previously the leading cause of death, in large measure due to sanitation and food safety, vaccines, antibiotics and improved nutrition. This has led people to put their faith in the notion that medical science would succeed in overcoming the remaining obstacles. Vaccination has eradicated smallpox, nearly eradicated poliomyelitis and greatly reduced many other highly dangerous infections such as diphtheria, tetanus and measles. New diseases such as HIV and new forms of influenz...
Source: Public Health Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Park SH, Lee MS, Kim SR, Kwak YG Abstract BACKGROUND: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of being exposed to or transmitting infections in hospitals, and vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) is a well-known preventive strategy. Vaccination against influenza, hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and pertussis is recommended for HCP. However, there is no information on the current status of hospitals' vaccination policies for HCP in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey on hospital vaccination policies and barriers to implementing recommended vaccination ...
Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research
Right now, many people are hoping for a vaccine to protect against the new coronavirus. While that’s still on the horizon, new research suggests that families who do vaccinate their children may not be following the recommended schedule. Vaccines are given on a schedule for a reason: to protect children from vaccine-preventable disease. Experts designed the schedule so that children get protection when they need it — and the doses are timed so the vaccine itself can have the best effect. When parents don’t follow the schedule, their children may not be protected. And yet, many parents do not follow the sc...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Adolescent health Children's Health Parenting Vaccines Source Type: blogs
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