The Versatility of Opportunistic Infections Caused by Gemella Isolates Is Supported by the Carriage of Virulence Factors From Multiple Origins

The molecular basis of the pathogenesis of the opportunistic invasive infections caused by isolates of the Gemella genus remains largely unknown. Moreover, inconsistencies in the current species assignation were detected after genome-level comparison of 16 public Gemella isolates. A literature search detected that, between the two most pathogenic species, Gemella morbillorum causes about twice the number of cases compared to Gemella haemolysans. These two species shared their mean diseases – sepsis and endocarditis – but differed in causing other syndromes. A number of well-known virulence factors were harbored by all species, such as a manganese transport/adhesin sharing 83% identity from oral endocarditis-causing streptococci. Likewise, all Gemellae carried the genes required for incorporating phosphorylcholine into their cell walls and encoded some choline-binding proteins. In contrast, other proteins were species-specific, which may justify the known epidemiological differences. G. haemolysans, but not G. morbillorum, harbor a gene cluster potentially encoding a polysaccharidic capsule. Species-specific surface determinants also included Rib and MucBP repeats, hemoglobin-binding NEAT domains, peptidases of C5a complement factor and domains that recognize extracellular matrix molecules exposed in damaged heart valves, such as collagen and fibronectin. Surface virulence determinants were associated with several taxonomically dispersed opportunistic genera of the...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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ConclusionThese results demonstrate the establishment of a novel in vitro model for bacterial biofilm growth on porcine aortic roots mimicking IE. The model will allow to identify predilection sites of valves for bacterial adhesion and biofilm growth and it may serve as baseline for further research on IE therapy and prevention, e.g. the development of antimicrobial transcatheter approaches to IE.Graphic abstract
Source: Clinical Research in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The double-valve replacement and AMC reconstruction (the Commando procedure) is an effective technique in complex heart valve disease. The short- and mid-term results with this technique are optimal, with a very low in-hospital mortality and nearly 100% of long-term survival during follow-up. PMID: 32395280 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional methods, molecular imaging has the advantage to noninvasively and directly trace the inflammatory process, and to early identify the presence and the extent of intra-cardiac and extra-cardiac involvement, to enable quantification of disease activity, guide therapeutic interventions, and monitor treatment success. PMID: 32321415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Radiopharmaceuticals - Category: Radiology Tags: Curr Radiopharm Source Type: research
Biofilms usually occur on or within medical devices such as mechanical heart valves, prosthetic joints, peritoneal dialysis catheters, contact lenses, central venous catheters, pacemakers and urinary catheters. The presence of biofilms can be seen in different diseases like endocarditis, otitis, cystic fibrosis, periodontitis, osteomyelitis and chronic wounds. Toxin–antitoxin systems are reported to respond to stresses that are also found in the host. Some toxins of toxin–antitoxin systems modules have been proposed as potential weapons used by bacteria to act on host targets. In this review, we focus on the mo...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research
ConclusionsFollowing heart valve surgery, the risk of recurrent IE was significantly higher than the risk of first-time IE.Graphic abstract
Source: Clinical Research in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
GERBODE DEFECT, a communication from the left ventricle (LV) to right atrium (RA), can be congenital or acquired.1,2 The congenital form involves the membranous portion of the interventricular septum extending to the atrial aspect. A defect communicating from the LV to the RA above the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve is characteristic of the acquired form.3 Previous heart valve surgery, infective endocarditis, and myocardial infarct have been reported to be potential causes of the acquired form.
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Conclusion: The findings show that the positive improvement in HRQoL from exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation cannot simply be explained by an improvement in physical performance.
Source: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Cardiac Rehabilitation Source Type: research
Lyme endocarditis is extremely rare manifestation of Lyme disease. The clinical manifestations of Lyme endocarditis are non-specific and can be very challenging diagnosis to make when it is the only manifestation of the disease. Until now, only a few cases where reported. Physicians should keep in mind the possibility of borrelial etiology of endocarditis in endemic areas. Appropriate valve tissue sample should be sent for histopathology, culture, and PCR especially in case of endocarditis of unknown origin PCR on heart valve samples is recommended. With more frequent PCR, Borrelia spp. may be increasingly found as a cause...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to investigate the predictor and long-term outcome of TAVI endocarditis.MethodsConsecutive patients undergoing TAVI at the University of Bonn were prospectively enrolled in this study. Transcatheter heart valve (THV) endocarditis was defined according to Duke criteria. The primary outcome was all-cause death within a 5-year follow-up.Results1448 successful TAVI patients were eligible for the study and 17 patients (1.2%) developed THV endocarditis during the follow-up period (median 294  days). A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age (odds ratio [OR] 0.90;P&thi...
Source: Clinical Research in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Pericardial effusion is often detected in patients with Infective endocarditis. Incidence can be as high as 25% . Most often it is mild, can be moderate in few. Mechanism Sympathetic effusion in response to endocardial infection. It’s never more than minimal. (Evidence ? it’s only an assumption) IE related cardiac failure (Raised systemic venous pressure to which pericardial veins drain) Local sepsis, Abcess formation tracks to pericardial space through transmural lymphatics Fungal , granulomatous , Tuberculous IE (Rare) Here IE and PE  share the same pathology Part of systemic sepsis activated Immun...
Source: Dr.S.Venkatesan MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: cardiology -Therapeutics Cardiology -unresolved questions Infrequently asked questions in cardiology (iFAQs) pericardial disease pericardial effusion Pericardium infective endocarditis pericardial effusion in infective endocarditis Source Type: blogs
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