Alcohol ‐induced impaired insulin secretion in a Japanese population: Five‐year follow‐up in the Gifu Diabetes Study

AbstractAims/IntroductionWhile moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes in European populations, the same cannot be assumed for Japanese patients with diabetes related to low insulin secretion rather than resistance. We aimed to evaluate the effects of daily alcohol consumption on glucose tolerance and diabetes development risk in Japanese populations.Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study randomly enrolled 452 men and 659 women aged 40 –78 years in 2005 (Gifu, Japan). The participants completed a 75‐g oral glucose tolerance test and medical questionnaire. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐R), β‐cell function (HOMA‐β), and insulinogenic index were used to estimate insulin sensitivity and secre tion. The relationships between alcohol consumption and these parameters were analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for potential confounders. The 5‐year changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also evaluated.ResultsThe adjusted odds ratios for elevated HOMA ‐β values (
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

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Background/AimsIncreasing evidence shows that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with dysregulation of microvascular perfusion independently of established cardio-metabolic risk factors. We investigated whether hepatic manifestations of NAFLD such as liver fibrosis and liver fat are associated with microvascular hemodynamics through dysregulation of neurovascular control.MethodsMicrovascular dilator (post-occlusive reactive hyperemia) and sympathetically mediated constrictor (deep inspiratory breath-hold) responses were measured at the forearm and finger, respectively, using laser Doppler fluximetry. N...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsHHS/DKA occurred mostly in T1D and younger patients. However, both also occurred in T2D, which is of great importance in the treatment of diabetes. Better education programmes are necessary to prevent decompensation and comorbidities.
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Bariatric surgery has been shown to significantly improve both liver biochemistry and histology leading to improvements in Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). The Endobarrier is an endoscopically implanted duodenal jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) designed to mimic the effects of bariatric surgery leading to significant weight loss and improvements in glycaemic control. The purpose of this sub-study was to evaluate the effects of DJBL therapy on liver plasma parameters of NAFLD in obese patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM).
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Poster abstracts Source Type: research
Diabetes Core Update is a monthly podcast that presents and discusses the latest clinically relevant articles from the American Diabetes Association’s four science and medical journals – Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Clinical Diabetes, and Diabetes Spectrum. Each episode is approximately 20 minutes long and presents 5-6 recently published articles from ADA journals. Intended for practicing physicians and health care professionals, Diabetes Core Update discusses how the latest research and information published in journals of the American Diabetes Association are relevant to clinical practice and can be applied in a ...
Source: Diabetes Core Update - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
AbstractChanges in neurovascular coupling are associated with both Alzheimer ’s disease and vascular dementia in later life, but this may be confounded by cerebrovascular risk. We hypothesized that hemodynamic latency would be associated with reduced cognitive functioning across the lifespan, holding constant demographic and cerebrovascular risk. In 387 adults aged 18–85 (mean = 48.82), dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate the hemodynamic response function in the left and right V1 and V3-ventral regions of the visual cortex in response to a simple checkerboard block design stimulus with mi...
Source: Anatomy and Embryology - Category: Anatomy Source Type: research
Abstract Changes in neurovascular coupling are associated with both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in later life, but this may be confounded by cerebrovascular risk. We hypothesized that hemodynamic latency would be associated with reduced cognitive functioning across the lifespan, holding constant demographic and cerebrovascular risk. In 387 adults aged 18-85 (mean = 48.82), dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate the hemodynamic response function in the left and right V1 and V3-ventral regions of the visual cortex in response to a simple checkerboard block design stimulus with minim...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes recent animal and human trials examining the potential for kefir to improve obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Evidence for pathways affected and suggestions of possible mechanisms of action are also considered.Recent FindingsHuman trials examining the ability of kefir to recapitulate metabolic health benefits previously observed in rodent models have found mixed results.SummaryKefir has long been associated with improvements in health including obesity, diabetes, NAFLD, and dyslipidemia in preventative animal trials. While ...
Source: Current Nutrition Reports - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
AbstractPurposePancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are a group of clinically rare and heterogeneous tumors of the pancreas. Currently there are no studies investigating the gender difference in PNEN susceptibility. Thus, the purpose of this study was aimed at examining how gender shapes risk factors, clinicopathological features, and comorbidities in PNENs.MethodsThe study design consisted of an Italian multicenter, retrospective study. The study included all consecutive patients with PNENs followed at the participating centers. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients (105 males,124 females, age 54  ±&th...
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the Western world has increased dramatically during the recent decades. According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The relationship among obesity, T2DM and PC is complex. Due to increase in obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption and sedentary lifestyle, the mortality due to PC is expected to rise significantly by year 2040. The underlying mechanisms by which diabetes and obesity contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis are not well understood. Furthermore, me...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe present study showed that the decrease of visceral fat area and the increase of adiponectin level contributed to the improvement of NAFLD in patients with type  2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, dapagliflozin and pioglitazone exerted equivalent beneficial effects on NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it seemed that these two drugs had different mechanisms of action.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Clinical Trial Source Type: research
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