Characterization of Cerebellum-Specific Ribosomal DNA Epigenetic Modifications in Alzheimer ’s Disease: Should the Cerebellum Serve as a Control Tissue After All?

AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, known as the most common form of dementia. In AD onset, abnormal rRNA expression has been reported to be linked in pathogenesis. Although region-specific expression patterns have previously been reported in AD, it is not until recently that the cereb ellum has come under the spotlight. Specifically, it is unclear whether DNA methylation is the mechanism involved in rRNA expression regulation in AD. Hence, we sought to explore the rDNA methylation pattern of two different brain regions – auditory cortex and cerebellum – from AD and age-/sex-m atched controls. Our results showed differential hypermethylation at an upstream CpG region to the rDNA promoter when comparing cerebellum controls to auditory cortex controls. This suggests a possible regulatory region from rDNA expression regulation. Moreover, when comparing between AD and control cerebellum samples, we observed hypermethylation of the rDNA promoter region as well as an increase in rDNA content. In addition, we also observed increased rRNA levels in AD compared to control cerebellum. Although still considered a pathology-free brain region, there are growing findings that con tinue to suggest otherwise. Indeed, cerebellum from AD has been recently described as affected by the disease, presenting a unique pattern of molecular alterations. Given that we observed that increased rDNA promoter methylation did not silence rDNA gene expression, ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Wang Z, Shen L, Wang Y, Huang S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is considered the most common type of dementia worldwide. The aim of the present study was to identify key microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and mRNAs affecting the pathogenesis of AD, which may be developed as promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis or targeted therapy of patients with AD. Integrative analysis was performed on 12 representative miRNA datasets and three mRNA datasets of the blood from patients with AD, in order to identify differentially expressed (DE)miRNAs and DEmRNAs. Subsequen...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the CAIDE dementia risk score is associated with cortical thickness and cognitive function at midlife in a low-risk population. These data provide insight into subclinical structural and functional changes occurring during midlife associated with future risk for the development of dementia. PMID: 32467426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Authors: Polychronidou E, Avramouli A, Vlamos P Abstract Misfolded proteins result when a protein follows the wrong folding pathway. Accumulation of misfolded proteins can cause disorders, known as amyloid diseases. Unfortunately, some of them are very common. The most prevalent one is Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest form of dementia. The current study aims to assess the impact of somatic mutations in PSEN1 gene. The said mutations are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer's disease. As protein functionality can be affected by mutations, the study of ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Robakis NK Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia caused by severe neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and neocortical regions of the brain. In addition to neurodegeneration, AD brains contain high levels of amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) which are used as neuropathological hallmarks of the disorder. Despite intense research efforts, the mechanism(s) of the AD neurodegeneration are imperfectly understood, hampering efforts for the development of efficient therapeutics. Furthermore, failure of clinical trials to benefit AD patients suggests that AD h...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
The objective of this review study is to highlight the effectiveness of brief cognitive tests (BCT) in the case of dementia and Alzheimer's disease screening. Authors' future work will focus on the application of BCT in MCI diagnosis and evaluation. PMID: 32468467 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Salis C, Papageorgiou L, Papakonstantinou E, Hagidimitriou M, Vlachakis D Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases lead to the death of nerve cells in the brain or the spinal cord. A wide range of diseases are included within the group of neurodegenerative disorders, with the most common ones being dementia, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Millions of older people are suffering from such pathologies. The global increase of life expectancy unavoidably leads to a consequent increase in the number of people who will be at some degree affected by neurodegenerative-related diseases. At this moment, there is n...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Lyketsos CG Abstract Over 40 million people worldwide suffer from dementia. This number is projected to exceed 110 million by 2050 because of the aging of the worldwide population, especially in lower- and middle-income countries. The most common cause of dementia is believed to be Alzheimer's, a brain disease associated with deposition of beta-amyloid protein and hyperphosphorylation of intraneuronal tau protein leading to synaptic degradation, neuronal loss, brain circuit disruption, a range of symptoms, and eventually, if the person lives long enough, death. Over the last few decades, treatment developm...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The utilization of informatics in making cognitive assessment a user-friendly, validated, not time- or cost-consuming procedure would add value to psychometric tools which still are administered with "pen and paper", when this proceeds with respect to the ethics of the science. PMID: 32468544 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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