Elevated Plasma Reelin Levels in Children With Autism

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders involving age-dependent gene dysregulation. Reelin is a glycoprotein that varies its expression throughout lifetime and controls cortical patterning and synaptogenesis. Brain and plasma reelin levels have been reported to be low in adults with autism; as well as in children with autism, but only when compared to control adults. Therefore, reelin expression levels in children with autism are unclear. For this reason, we compared plasma reelin levels in children with autism and children without autism (non-ASD) of similar ages to evaluate reelin expression in ASD during childhood. Plasma samples from 19 non-ASD (8.9 ± 0.8 years) and 40 children with autism (7.5 ± 0.5 years) were analyzed. We found that 50% of the children with autism displayed similar plasma reelin levels to the non-ASD group. However, the remaining 50% expressed more than 30 times more reelin compared to non-ASD levels. We also show that male children with autism displayed significantly higher reelin levels than females. The clinical presentation of this subgroup could not be distinguished from that of children with autism. Epilepsy or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was not associated to reelin levels. We conclude that the high levels of plasma reelin might be an important hallmark in a subset of children with autism, previously unnoticed. As we could not find any correlation between reelin levels and ASD c...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Reported associations between in utero exposure to antidepressants and physical, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric outcomes, in large part, seem to be driven by the underlying maternal disorder. When limiting confounding by indication, prenatal exposure to antidepressants was significantly associated only with offspring BMI and affective disorders. PMID: 32412703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: It should be routine to screen for cognitive and behavioral difficulties for all patients with DS. There is a need for more robust studies regarding intellectual and behavioral disorders in patients with DS. These should be large population-based or multinational studies that employ standardized instruments. PMID: 32334365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There were differences in VABS-II domain and subdomain characteristics between children with focal epilepsy and those with ASD; however, it was more difficult for children with more severe ASD and coexisting focal epilepsy to show age-equivalent adaptive behavior. PMID: 32320922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Abstract Preeclampsia is a dangerous hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with known links to negative child health outcomes. Here, we review epidemiological and basic neuroscience work from the past several decades linking prenatal preeclampsia to altered neurodevelopment. This work demonstrates increased rates of neuropsychiatric disorders [e.g., increased autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] in children of preeclamptic pregnancies, as well as increased rates of cognitive impairments [e.g., decreased intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance] and neurological disease (e...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
In conclusion, school-aged children with CP very often screened positive for ASD and/or ADHD. The prevalence of ASD and ADHD is most likely underestimated in children with CP. These screening findings require further investigations.
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression through posttranscriptional mechanisms via degradation or inhibition of specific mRNAs targets. In recent years, abundant studies have illustrated the relevance of miRNAs in human psychopathology. In this current review, neuropsychiatric disorders with moderate to high prevalence among children and adolescents such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Dyslexia, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia and Tourette Syndrome were discussed focusing on the functional consequence of altered miRNA expression...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
[Neurobehavioral Comorbidities in Pentylenetetrazol-kindled Mice and Role of the α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2019;139(11):1397-1402 Authors: Takechi K Abstract Patients with epilepsy are often affected by not only seizures but also a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. However, it is unclear whether epilepsy is associated with psychic function. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of kindling-induced epileptic seizures on psychic functioning, using behavioral pharmacological tests. Pent...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
ConclusionASD may be a common co-morbidity in non-epileptic seizures. Careful clinical assessment with consideration of ASD traits is therefore important in the non-epileptic seizures population. It is beneficial to diagnose ASD early as its presence is likely to require a modified approach to assessment and treatment of non-epileptic seizures. Study of the development of non-epileptic seizures in ASD may suggest hypotheses for the pathogenesis of non-epileptic seizures in the wider population.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractExposure to gestational stress is implicated in increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. We assessed association between prenatal exposure to a 1-month period of repeated rocket attacks during the 2006 Second Lebanon War in Northern Israel and emergence of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders from birth through 9  years of age. Children born to women who were pregnant during the war (N = 6999) were identified and compared to children in the same district born a year later (N = 7054), whose mothers were not exposed to rocket attacks during pregnancy. Multivariable ...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Autism Spectrum Disorders comprise conditions that may affect cognitive development, motor skills, social interaction, communication, and behavior. This set of functional deficits often results in lack of independence for the diagnosed individuals, and severe distress for patients, families, and caregivers. There is a mounting body of evidence indicating the effectiveness of pure cannabidiol (CBD) and CBD-enriched Cannabis sativa extract (CE) for the treatment of autistic symptoms in refractory epilepsy patients. There is also increasing data support for the hypothesis that non-epileptic autism shares underlying etiologica...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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