Hepatitis B

This article highlights key developments in antiviral/immunomodulatory therapy, the rationale for these approaches, and possible therapeutic regimens.
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractThe World Health Organisation, in its 2019 progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and STDs indicates that 257 million people are afflicted with chronic HBV infections, of which, 1 million patients lose their lives every year due to HBV related chronic liver diseases including serious complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The course of HBV infection and associated liver injury depend on several host factors, genetic variability of the virus, and the host viral interplay. The challenge of medical science is the early diagnosis/identification of the potential for development of fatal com...
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Purpose of review The available vaccine and therapies against hepatitis B virus (HBV) rarely eliminate chronic infection with the virus. High mortality resulting from complicating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma makes improving anti-HBV therapy an important priority. Recent advances with using gene therapy to counter HBV have potential and are the focus of this review. Recent findings The stable replication-competent HBV intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is the template for expression of all viral genes. Inactivating cccDNA has thus been a focus of research aimed at achieving cure ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV AND HEPATITIS B CURE: Edited by Sharon R. Lewin and Peter A. Revill Source Type: research
amvis Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects the liver resulting in end stage liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite an effective vaccine, HBV poses a serious health problem globally, accounting for 257 million chronic carriers. Unique features of HBV, including its narrow virus–host range and its hepatocyte tropism, have led to major challenges in the development of suitable in vivo and in vitro model systems to recapitulate the HBV replication cycle and to test various antiviral strategies. Moreover, HBV is classified into at least nine genotypes and 35 sub-genotypes with distinct geograph...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionA substantial further reduction in cases of HCC requires a wider application of universal HBV vaccination and effective treatment of HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, more effective campaigns to favor correct dietary habits and reduce alcohol consumption and the intensification of studies on HCC pathogenesis for future optimized prevention strategies.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
al MN Abstract Despite the implementation of various vaccination programs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a considerable health problem in Saudi Arabia. Insight on HBV evolutionary history in the region is limited. We performed a comprehensive epidemiological and phylogenetic reconstruction based on a large cohort of HBV infected patients. Three hundred and nineteen HBV-infected patients with different clinical manifestations, including inactive and active chronic carriers and patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were enrolled in this study. The full-length large S gene was amplified and sequ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
pinyo Hongeng More than 350 million people worldwide have been persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Chronic HBV infection could advance toward liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The intervention with prophylactic vaccine and conventional treatment could suppress HBV, but could not completely eradicate it. The major obstacle for investigating curative antiviral drugs are the incompetence of hepatocyte models that should have closely imitated natural human infection. Here, we demonstrated that an immortalized hepatocyte-like cell line (imHC) could accommodate for over 30 days the entire l...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Despite the availability of an effective prophylactic vaccine leading to sterilizing immunity, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for chronic liver disease in more than 250 million individuals, potentially leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Antiviral drugs able to completely suppress virus replication are indeed available but they are, by and large, unable to eradicate the virus. Several alternative new treatment approaches are currently being developed but none have so far captured the interest of clinicians for possible clinical development. A constant feature of chronic HBV infection is T-cell exhaus...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
THE GORDON WILSON LECTURE: THE HEPATITIS C VIRUS: FROM HIPPOCRATES TO CURE. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:104-118 Authors: Alter HJ Abstract The modern age of viral hepatitis began in the early 1960s with the serendipitous discovery of the Australia antigen, a protein that was later shown to represent the envelope of the hepatitis B virus leading to its designation as the hepatitis B surface antigen. This was the first marker for any hepatitis virus and became not only a diagnostic assay, but also a mandatory blood donor screening test and the basis for the first generation hepatitis B vaccine...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have anti-HBs while the seroprevalence of HCV is low among pregnant women in the city of Mwanza. Routine screening of HBV among pregnant women coupled with appropriate management should be emphasized in developing countries. Further studies to determine seroprevalence of HCV are recommended across the country. PMID: 31316835 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Pregnancy - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Pregnancy Source Type: research
More than 240 million people worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) [1 –2]. In the Asia-Pacific region, where it is most prevalent, chronic HBV infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma [2–6]. While currently approved oral nucleos(t)ide analogs effectively suppress viral replication, providing important clinical benefi ts, there are several disadvantages of this therapeutic approach. First, since antiviral therapy is rarely curative, most patients must receive life-long treatment with the attendant cost, cumulative toxicity, and risk of...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
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