Hepatitis B

This article highlights key developments in antiviral/immunomodulatory therapy, the rationale for these approaches, and possible therapeutic regimens.
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe burden of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) remains disproportionately high among people living with HIV (PLWH) despite the advent of HBV vaccination and HBV-active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review summarizes new insights and evolving issues in HIV-HBV coinfection.Recent FindingsHBV-HIV coinfection is still a leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related mortality more than a decade after the approval of tenofovir. While tenofovir-based ART has been shown to improve rates of HBV virologic suppression and halt fibrosis progression, the long-term benefits on the p...
Source: Current Hepatitis Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
k Arbuthnot Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a global health challenge. Approximately 292 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV and the annual mortality from the infection is approaching 900,000. Despite the availability of an effective prophylactic vaccine, millions of individuals are at risk of potentially fatal complicating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current drug treatments can suppress viral replication, slow the progression of liver fibrosis, and reduce infectivity, but can rarely clear the viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that is responsible for HBV per...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
This report describes the progress made toward hepatitis B control in SEAR during 2016-2019. By 2016, all 11 countries in the region had introduced HepB in their national immunization programs, and eight countries had introduced HepB-BD. During 2016-2019, regional HepB3 coverage increased from 89% to 91%, and HepB-BD coverage increased from 34% to 54%. In 2019, nine countries in the region achieved ≥90% HepB3 coverage, and three of the eight countries that provide HepB-BD achieved ≥90% HepB-BD coverage. By December 2019, four countries had been verified to have achieved the hepatitis B control goal. Countries in the ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Viral hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting nearly two billion subjects; 3.3% of whom are from the WHO (World Health Organization) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO). It induces both acute and chronic hepatic disorders with subsequent liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a considerable percentage of patients based on the age of exposure. In this review, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCC prevalence, distribution and prevalence of different genotypes, and male/female infection frequencies in relation to the vaccination status in the Mediterranean countries were reported. St...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality from chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the performance and outcomes of the Korean Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programme (PHBPP) and to investigate the impact of the current post-exposure immunoprophylaxis protocol. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed based on electronic data registry of infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected mothers between July 2002 and 2013. RESULTS: During the study period, 159,983 Korean infants were registered ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
AbstractThe World Health Organisation, in its 2019 progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and STDs indicates that 257 million people are afflicted with chronic HBV infections, of which, 1 million patients lose their lives every year due to HBV related chronic liver diseases including serious complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The course of HBV infection and associated liver injury depend on several host factors, genetic variability of the virus, and the host viral interplay. The challenge of medical science is the early diagnosis/identification of the potential for development of fatal com...
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Purpose of review The available vaccine and therapies against hepatitis B virus (HBV) rarely eliminate chronic infection with the virus. High mortality resulting from complicating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma makes improving anti-HBV therapy an important priority. Recent advances with using gene therapy to counter HBV have potential and are the focus of this review. Recent findings The stable replication-competent HBV intermediate comprising covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is the template for expression of all viral genes. Inactivating cccDNA has thus been a focus of research aimed at achieving cure ...
Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: HIV AND HEPATITIS B CURE: Edited by Sharon R. Lewin and Peter A. Revill Source Type: research
amvis Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects the liver resulting in end stage liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite an effective vaccine, HBV poses a serious health problem globally, accounting for 257 million chronic carriers. Unique features of HBV, including its narrow virus–host range and its hepatocyte tropism, have led to major challenges in the development of suitable in vivo and in vitro model systems to recapitulate the HBV replication cycle and to test various antiviral strategies. Moreover, HBV is classified into at least nine genotypes and 35 sub-genotypes with distinct geograph...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionA substantial further reduction in cases of HCC requires a wider application of universal HBV vaccination and effective treatment of HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, more effective campaigns to favor correct dietary habits and reduce alcohol consumption and the intensification of studies on HCC pathogenesis for future optimized prevention strategies.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
al MN Abstract Despite the implementation of various vaccination programs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) poses a considerable health problem in Saudi Arabia. Insight on HBV evolutionary history in the region is limited. We performed a comprehensive epidemiological and phylogenetic reconstruction based on a large cohort of HBV infected patients. Three hundred and nineteen HBV-infected patients with different clinical manifestations, including inactive and active chronic carriers and patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were enrolled in this study. The full-length large S gene was amplified and sequ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
More News: Cancer & Oncology | Carcinoma | Cirrhosis | Gastroenterology | Hepatitis | Hepatitis B | Hepatitis Vaccine | Hepatocellular Carcinoma | Liver Cancer | Vaccines