Neuroprotective and neurotoxic outcomes of androgens and estrogens in an oxidative stress environment

ConclusionsSex hormone action on cell viability is dependent on the cellular environment. In healthy neuronal cells, sex hormones are protective against oxidative stress insults via the estrogen receptor, regardless of sex chromosome complement (XX, XY). However, in unhealthy (e.g., high oxidative stress) cells, sex hormones exacerbated oxidative stress-induced cell loss, regardless of cell type or sex chromosome complement. The non-genomic AR45 receptor, which is present in humans, mediated androgen ’s damaging effects, but it is unknown which receptor mediated estrogen’s damaging effects. These differential effects of sex hormones that are dependent on the cellular environment, receptor profile, and cell type may mediate the observed sex differences in oxidative stress-associated CNS disor ders.
Source: Biology of Sex Differences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Depression in dementia is common, with around half of people with Alzheimer's disease experiencing depression1,2, compared to prevalence rates of around a third in older adults without dementia3. The combined effect of depression with a disabling condition is profound, leading to reduced quality of life for people with dementia and their caregivers1, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairments4, increasing mortality5, and worsening care outcomes by increasing caregiver burden and risk of transition to residential care6,7.
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Regular Research Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, for individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes, it seems like their MMSE score needs to change by four or more points between two measurements in order for their score change to be reliably higher than the measurement error.
Source: European Journal of Ageing - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
Abstract Lumateperone (ITI-007) is a tosylate salt with binding affinities to receptors implicated in the therapeutic actions of antipsychotic medications, including the serotonin 5HT2A receptors, dopamine D2 and D1 receptors and the serotonin transporter. It has a unique mechanism of action because it simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmission, implicated in serious mental illness. It can be considered a multi-target-directed ligand and a multifunctional modulator of serotoninergic system with possible precognitive, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Lumate...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
AbstractTheBrain cytoplasmic 200 RNA (BC200 RNA) is neuron-specific lncRNA with putative roles in normal aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease. Its role in the neuron plasticity has also been documented. In the current study, we genotyped a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within this lncRNA (rs4404327) in a population of Iranian patients with diverse neuropsychiatric conditions including substance addiction (n = 315), attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) (n = 53), bipolar 1 (BP1) (n = 131), bipolar 2 (BP2) (n = 68), major depressive...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractAccumulating evidence indicates that over-stimulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1) activity is associated with β-amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau)-induced apoptosis, oxido-nitrosative neuroinflammatory stress and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Alternatively, activation of the ACE2, the metalloprotease neprilysin (Neutral Endopeptidase; NEP) and the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) could oppose the effects of ACE1 activation. We aim to investigate the relationship between ACE1/ACE2/NEP/IDE and amyloidogenic/hyperlipidemic-lipid raft signaling in hyperlipidemic AD ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results suggest that attention to specific depressive symptom profile can improve diagnostic sensitivity and can be used to provide more individualized patient care.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Photo credit Aris Fackenakis The truth, as they see it, is still the truth in their eyes. Delusions, hallucinations, agitation, aggression, and depression are all part of the gradual progression of psychosis of patients with Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). An average of 41% of these patients will experience these psychotic symptoms. One of the most common delusions these patients have are theft-related. An experienced caregiver offers her advice on how to deal with accusations of theft, which are common in dementia patients. Continue reading on Agingcare for more about how Alzheimer's - yes even younger-onset Alzheimer's ...
Source: Minding Our Elders - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Source Type: blogs
Shutterstock Is it fair to question a presidential candidate’s mental fitness? (Salon): “My heart sank as he floundered his way through his responses, fumbling with his notes, uncharacteristically lost for words. He looked tired and bewildered,” Ron Reagan, the son of President Ronald Reagan, wrote of his father’s performance during the first 1984 presidential debate. At the time, there had long been rumors that Reagan was suffering from cognitive impairment — perhaps Alzheimer’s Disease — and as he struggled during the first debate against his Democratic opponent, former Vice Pres...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Technology Alzheimers-disease Cognitive-impairment mental health mental illness mental-fitness Source Type: blogs
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has an estimated prevalence of 50 million persons worldwide1 and an incidence of 10 million cases per year1-3, making it the most common form of dementia. While neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in AD, apathy is particularly frequent, affecting up to 70% of patients4. Apathy has been broadly defined as a loss of interest in daily activities and diminished goal directed behavior in the absence of depression and other mood changes5 –7 . This NPS is associated with greater functional impairment, greater caregiver burden, increased risk of institutionalization, poorer quality of life, an...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Regular Research Article Source Type: research
Abstract 1. Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in late December, 2019. Despite the tremendous efforts to control the disease, SARS-CoV-2 has infected 1,5 million people and caused the death of more than a hundred thousand people across the globe as of writing. Recently, Mao et al. [1] investigated the penetration potential of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system in 214 patients. They reported that 36.4% of the patients had some neurologic findings which are ranged from nonsp...
Source: Current Neurovascular Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Curr Neurovasc Res Source Type: research
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