Comparative meta-analyses of brain structural and functional abnormalities during cognitive control in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

Comparative meta-analyses of brain structural and functional abnormalities during cognitive control in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Psychol Med. 2020 Mar 27;:1-26 Authors: Lukito S, Norman L, Carlisi C, Radua J, Hart H, Simonoff E, Rubia K Abstract BACKGROUND: People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormalities in frontal, temporal, parietal and striato-thalamic networks. It is unclear to what extent these abnormalities are distinctive or shared. This comparative meta-analysis aimed to identify the most consistent disorder-differentiating and shared structural and functional abnormalities. METHODS: Systematic literature search was conducted for whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cognitive control comparing people with ASD or ADHD with typically developing controls. Regional gray matter volume (GMV) and fMRI abnormalities during cognitive control were compared in the overall sample and in age-, sex- and IQ-matched subgroups with seed-based d mapping meta-analytic methods. RESULTS: Eighty-six independent VBM (1533 ADHD and 1295 controls; 1445 ASD and 1477 controls) and 60 fMRI datasets (1001 ADHD and 1004 controls; 335 ASD and 353 controls) were identified. The VBM meta-analyses revealed ADHD-differentiating decreased ventromedial orbitofrontal (z = 2.22, p
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

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Commentary on… the overlapping and distinct resting functional connectivity between autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 24;:1-2 Authors: Mehra C, Absoud M Abstract SummaryAltered neural connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders is likely subtle, meaning that neuroimaging literature studying development has produced heterogeneous findings. A recent study, published in this issue, illustrates the translational potential of functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging findings as a biomarker for attention-deficit hyperactivity di...
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: Prefrontal gyrification is reduced in children with ADHD who also carry the DRD4 7R allele, and it relates to critical functional skills in the executive domain in carriers of the risk allele. More broadly, these effects highlight the importance of considering precise neurodevelopmental mechanisms through which risk alleles influence cortical neurogenesis and migration.IntroductionAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The disorder is thought to affect ar...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with complex changes as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To date, neuroimaging-based models are not able to characterize individuals with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Further, although evidence demonstrates occurrence of ADHD traits in individuals with autism, and autism traits in individuals with ADHD, the neurofunctional basis of the overlap is undefined.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSION:: Our results showed that dysfunction of the default mode network is a central feature in the co-occurrence of autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, including connectivity within the default mode network as well as between the default mode network and the somatomotor networks, thus supporting the existence of a clinically combined phenotype (autistic spectrum disorder + attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). PMID: 30843728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Aust N Z J Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractBehavioral traits associated with various forms of psychopathology are conceptualized as dimensional, varying from those present in a frank disorder to subclinical expression. Demonstrating links between these behavioral traits and neurobiological indicators, such as brain structure, provides one form of validation for this view. However, unlike behavioral dimensions associated with other forms of psychopathology (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial disorders), eating disorder traits have not been investigated in this manner in spite of the potential that such an app...
Source: Brain Imaging and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionFuture work in this domain should continue to leverage longitudinal evaluations of preterm infants which include both neuroimaging and detailed serial neurodevelopmental assessments to further characterize relationships between imaging measures and impairment, information necessary for advancing our understanding of modifiable risk factors underlying these disorders and best practices for improving neurodevelopmental trajectories in this high-risk clinical population.
Source: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 January 2019Source: NeuroImage, Volume 185Author(s): Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao HuangAbstractDynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating structural changes of the brain during early development provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified s...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Kit Melissa Larsen, Ilvana Dzafic, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Marta Isabel GarridoAbstractThe 22q11.2 deletion is one of the most common copy number variants in humans. Carriers of the deletion have a markedly increased risk for neurodevelopmental brain disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The high risk of psychiatric disorders associated with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome offers a unique possibility to identify the functional abnormalities that precede the emergence of psychosis. ...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Left-handedness, as a relatively uncommon phenomenon, never fails to fascinate people. There is a common perception that left-handed people are more talented and artistic. To what extent these assumptions are correct, and what your preferred use of right or left hand can tell you about your brain structure? Handedness represents the better performance or preference of using one hand, i.e., the dominant hand. Right-handedness is the most common type observed in 70–95% of the world population, followed by left-handedness, and then a very rare type of mixed handedness and ambidexterity. Although this is an important ph...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior Brain Blogger Publishers Brain Structure Handedness left-handed right-handed Source Type: blogs
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