Convalescent Plasma to Treat COVID-19

In this issue of JAMA, Shen et al report findings from a preliminary study of 5 severely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who were treated in the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, China, using plasma from recovered individuals. All patients had severe respiratory failure and were receiving mechanical ventilation; 1 needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 2 had bacterial and/or fungal pneumonia. Four patients without coexisting diseases received convalescent plasma around hospital day 20, and a patient with hypertension and mitral valve insufficiency received the plasma transfusion at day 10. The donor plasma had demonstrable IgG and IgM anti –SARS-CoV-19 antibodies and neutralized the virus in in vitro cultures. Although these patients continued to receive antiviral treatment primarily with lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon, the use of convalescent plasma may have contributed to their recovery because the clinical status of all patie nts had improvement approximately 1 week after transfusion, as evidenced by normalization of body temperature as well as improvements in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and Pao2/Fio2 ratio. In addition, the patients’ neutralizing antibody titers increased and respiratory samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 and 12 days after transfusion.
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, currently affecting 170 countries and territories across the globe. There is still much to be understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 about its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies; this knowledge will be essential to both manage the current pandemic and to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in the future. PMID: 32495923 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
A number of pneumonia cases of unknown causes have emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China since December 2019.1 After sequencing analysis of samples from the lower respiratory tract, a coronavirus,2 which was last named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).3 On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a new name for the disease caused by 2019-nCoV: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).4 With the arrival of the Spring Festival, an epidemic SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
A 50 year-old man with controlled hypertension and type II diabetes presented after one week of dyspnea and cough with a blood O2 saturation of 90%. A Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction assay on a nasopharyngeal swab specimen confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. On initial neurologic examination, the patient was alert and fully oriented with fluent speech and no focal deficits. On the second hospital day and while on 2L of supplemental O2 through nasal cannula, blood O2 saturation dropped to 70% and he was intubated.
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells following binding with the cell surface ACE2 receptors, thereby leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 causes viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and major complications, including acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, and shock mainly in elderly patients. Furthermore, patients with existing cardiovascular comorbidities, such as hypertension and coronary heart disease, have a worse clinical outcome following contraction of the viral illness. A striking feature of COVID-19 pandemics is the hig...
Source: AGE - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
AbstractThe Coronavirus (2019-Cov-2) infection Covid-19 is highly contagious caused by single stranded RNA virus (+ssRNA) with nucleocapsid and spreading widely all across the world and responsible for more than 3.6 million morbidity and 0.25 million mortality No specific treatment is available till date. The clinical symptoms are mainly upper respiratory leading to diffuse viral pneumonia and multiple organ failure involving. Kidney, Liver and Heart along with coagulopathies. During 2004 (SARS-CoV) pandemic role of nitric oxide in its management is well demonstrated. Nitric Oxide (NO) reversed pulmonary hypertension. Impr...
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization on December 31, 2019 and a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. The most significant health problem associated with COVID-19 has been identified as a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leading to pneumonia, respiratory failure and death. Elderly individuals with chronic health conditions (e.g., hypertension, asthma, diabetes, coronary heart disease) are more vulnerable.
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - Category: Geriatrics Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
Rationale: Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped, non-segmented positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the beta-coronaviridae family. This virus is known to cause severe bilateral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which can lead to difficulty breathing requiring mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit management. Patient concerns: A 77-year-old female with a history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia who presented as a transfer to our hospital facility with worsening fevers, cough, and respiratory distre...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) possess an enveloped, single, positive-stranded RNA genome which encodes for four membrane proteins, namely spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins 3-5 [1]. With regard to pathogenicity, S proteins are essential for viral entry into host cells [2, 3]. SARS-CoV binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 which is present on nonimmune cells, such as respiratory and intestinal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, kidney cells (renal tubules) and cerebral neurons and immune cells, such as alveolar monocytes/macrophages [4-6]. Of note, CD209L or liver/lymp...
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) was recognized in December 2019 as a cause of severe pneumonia and has now led to a global pandemic.1 Respiratory illnesses caused by COVID-19 cover a range of severity. The identification of risk and protective factors for disease severity from COVID-19 is critical to direct development of new treatments and infection prevention strategies. Early large case series have identified a number of risk factors for severe disease, including older age, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, tobacco exposure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
By SIMON YU, MD, LT COL, USA (Ret) Dr. Tom Frieden, former director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), opened up a new front in the Coronavirus War by saying we don’t just need to treat the acute disease, we need to treat the underlying conditions that make people more susceptible to serious disease progression. He focused on heart disease, and managing mitigating risk factors such as CVD, diabetes, hypertension and smoking in order to increase people’s odds for recovery. The initial focus has been pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with risk factors including ast...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 CDC chronic disease holistic care Pandemic SDoH Source Type: blogs
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