Knockdown of Arginyl-tRNA Synthetase Attenuates Ischemia-Induced Cerebral Cortex Injury in Rats After Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

AbstractSome researchers have previously shown that RNAi knockdown of arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) before or after a hypoxic injury can rescue animals from death, based on the model organism,C. elegans. However, there has been no study on the application of arginyl-tRNA synthetase knockdown in treating mammalian ischemic stroke, and its potential mechanism and effect on ischemic brain damage are still unknown. Here, we focused on the Rars gene, which encodes an arginyl-tRNA synthetase, and examined the effects of Rars knockdown in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. To achieve this aim, adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given right cerebral cortex injections of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) adenovirus (AV) particles to knock down arginyl-tRNA synthetase, and a non-targeting control (NTC) vector or phosphate-buffered solution served as the controls. After 4  days, the rats were exposed to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Then, the right cerebral cortex level of arginyl-tRNA synthetase was examined, and the effects of the Rars knockdown were evaluated by differences in infarction volume, oxidative stress, blood-brain barrier, mitocho ndrial function, and glucose metabolism at 1 day and 3 days after MCAO. The injection of shRNA adenovirus particles successfully suppressed the expression of arginyl-tRNA synthetase in the cerebral cortex. We observed an improvement in oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and gluc...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Abstract Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is a key protein that mediates neuronal death in ischemic stroke. Although the substrates of DAPK1 and molecular signal in stroke have been gradually discovered, the modulation of DAPK1 itself is still unclear. Here we first reveal that Caytaxin, a brain-specific member of BCL2/adenovirus E1B -interacting protein (BNIP-2), increases and interacts with DAPK1 as early as 2 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the penumbra area of mouse brain. Furthermore, Caytaxin binds to DAPK1 at the presynaptic site and inhibits DAPK1 catalytic activity. Silencing...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
In this study, we examine the molecular profile of the peri-infarct region on post-stroke day four, time when reparative processes are ongoing. We used a multiomics approach, involving RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry-based proteomics and metabolomics to characterize molecular changes in the peri-infarct region. We also took advantage of our previously developed method to express transgenes in the peri-infarct region where self-complementary adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were injected into the brain parenchyma on post-stroke day 2. We have previously used this method to show that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
HIF‑1α attenuates neuronal apoptosis by upregulating EPO expression following cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury in a rat MCAO model. Int J Mol Med. 2020 Jan 28;: Authors: Li J, Tao T, Xu J, Liu Z, Zou Z, Jin M Abstract Hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) is a key transcriptional factor in response to hypoxia and is involved in ischemic stroke. In the present study, the potential for HIF‑1α to inhibit neuronal apoptosis through upregulating erythropoietin (EPO) was investigated in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat stroke model. For this pur...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research
MST4 modulates the neuro-inflammatory response by regulating IκBα signaling pathway and affects the early outcome of experimental ischemic stroke in mice. Brain Res Bull. 2019 Nov 10;: Authors: Luan D, Zhang Y, Yuan L, Chu Z, Ma L, Xu Y, Zhao S Abstract MST4 limits peripheral, macrophage-dependent inflammatory responses through direct phosphorylation of the adaptor TRAF6; though its role in neuro-inflammation is unclear. We investigated microglia expression of MST4 and whether is attenuates neuro-inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Adult male C57BL6 mi...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research
In this study, we discussed the function and mechanism of LRG1 in acute ischemic stroke from both basic and clinical research points of view. Mice underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery two weeks after LRG1 was overexpressed by the delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV). For wild-type mice, both the protein and the transcript of LRG1 in the brain tissue were elevated after tMCAO. Meanwhile, the serum levels of LRG1 were decreased after tMCAO. The neuronal injury was shown aggravated in the AAV-LRG1 group (AAV-LRG1 mice with tMCAO) through infarction volume, neurological score, HE, and Nissl ...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
OCT4B-190 protects against ischemic stroke by modulating GSK-3β/HDAC6. Exp Neurol. 2019 Apr 11;: Authors: Chen Y, Wu Z, Zhu X, Zhang M, Zang X, Li X, Xu Y Abstract OCT4 is a key regulator in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human OCT4 gene has three mRNA isoforms, termed OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. The 190-amino-acid protein isoform (OCT4B-190) is one of the major products of OCT4B mRNA, the biological function of which is still not well defined. Recent evidence suggests that OCT4B-190 may function in the cellular stress response. The glycogen synthase ki...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
Publication date: 9 April 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 27, Issue 2Author(s): Jianxiong Zeng, Yaoming Wang, Zhifei Luo, Lin-Chun Chang, Ji Seung Yoo, Huan Yan, Younho Choi, Xiaochun Xie, Benjamin E. Deverman, Viviana Gradinaru, Stephanie L. Gupton, Berislav V. Zlokovic, Zhen Zhao, Jae U. JungSummaryExcessive and unresolved neuroinflammation is a key component of the pathological cascade in brain injuries such as ischemic stroke. Here, we report that TRIM9, a brain-specific tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, was highly expressed in the peri-infarct areas shortly after ischemic insults in mice, but expression was decreased ...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The current findings indicate that MST1 participates in SAH-induced BBB disruption and white matter fiber damage via the downstream NF-κB-MMP-9 signaling pathway. Therefore, MST1 antagonists may serve as a novel therapeutic target to prevent early brain injury in SAH patients. PMID: 30018671 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Behavioural Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Neurol Source Type: research
by Michael D. Ehlers, MD, PhD Dr. Ehlers is with Biogen in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2018;15(3–4):15–16 Funding: No funding was received for the preparation of this article. Disclosures: Dr. Ehlers is an employee and shareholder at Biogen Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Prominent and expensive failures in Alzheimer’s disease therapies have led to a contagious belief system in some parts of the biopharma industry that neuroscience is just too hard, too risky, and too uncertain. But, might this belief system itself be a residual bias of the past? Close inspection reveals all the signs...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Commentary Current Issue Source Type: research
Adenoviruses-mediated RNA interference targeting cytosolic phospholipase A2α attenuates focal ischemic brain damage in mice. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Feb 15;: Authors: Wu H, Liu H, Zuo F, Zhang L Abstract Cerebral ischemia injury is a clinical, frequently occurring disease, which causes a heavy burden on society and families. It has been demonstrated that cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is significant in neurological injury caused by ischemic brain injury, and inhibition of cPLA2α may reduce stroke injury. In the present study, the role of cPLA2α was investigated in a m...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
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