An increasing prevalence of non-GII.4 norovirus genotypes in acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Huzhou, China, 2014-2018

In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and genetic features of NoV outbreaks from July 2014 to June 2018 in Huzhou, China. A total of 450 stool samples collected from 51 AGE outbreaks were tested for NoVs by real-time RT PCR. Partial polymerase and capsid sequences of NoV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were found to be responsible of 84.3% of AGE outbreaks in Huzhou over the past 5 years. Most NoV outbreaks were reported in the cool months (November-March) and occurred in primary schools and kindergartens. Changes in the diversity of genotypes and the distribution of predominant types were observed in recent years. At least eight genotypes were identified, and 91.9% of the genotyped outbreaks were caused by non-GII.4 strains. The top three circulating genotypes during the study period were GII.2[P16], GII.3[P12], and GII.17[P17]. The predominant NoV genotypes in outbreaks have changed from GII.4 variants to GII.17[P17] in 2014-2015, GII.3[P12] in 2015-2016, and then GII.2[P16] in 2016-2018. Non-GII.4 NoVs play an increasingly important role in outbreaks in Huzhou. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of novel NoV strains and help control NoV outbreaks in the next epidemic season.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsEmployees in hospitals and community facilities seem quantitatively to be most vulnerable towards NoV epidemics. Therefore, high quality of prevention measures in these settings, respective compliance with prevention strategies should have the highest priority. The disease can be considered as an occupational disease, even regularly without long-term consequences. Following work safety rules, a vaccination for vulnerable groups should be recommended if the vaccine development turns out to be successful.
Source: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
Authors: Hanisch FG, Aydogan C Abstract Norovirus infections belong to the most common causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide, and epidemic outbreaks are responsible for hundreds of thousands deaths annually. Strikingly, no antiviral treatment is available due to the difficulty in cultivating virions or in generating a vaccine, and due to the fact that their infection mechanisms are poorly understood. However, there is consent that noroviruses bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) on their way through the digestive tract. The HBGA profiles vary individually, making people more or less susceptible to differe...
Source: Nestlee Nutrition Institute Workshop Series - Category: Nutrition Tags: Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser Source Type: research
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g., GII.3) replicate only in the presence of bile. Heat- and trypsin-treatment of bile...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
ConclusionsVarious HuNoV genotypes including GII.2, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17 were shown to be associated with various types of outbreak sites (at childcare and educational facilities, involving cases of food poisoning, and at elderly nursing homes) in this study. These genotypes emerged in recent years, and their prevalence patterns differed from each other. Moreover, differences in outbreak sites and viral load of patients among the genotypes were identified.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of InGenius Gastrointestinal Viral (GV) Elite Panel, a newly developed one-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay simultaneously detecting rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus, was evaluated retrospectively analyzing an archival collection of 128 stool samples of children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the GV assay was 100% and 96.2% for rotavirus, 96.9% and 100% for astrovirus, 100% and 100% for adenovirus, respectively. The InGenius GV assay showed a high concordance with the reference methods and was able to detect all tested gen...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
AbstractA gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses and pathogenic enteric bacteria by real-time RT-PCR and culture, respectively. Nucleotide sequences were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Genotyping, phylogenetic, and recombination analyses were conducted by a web-based genotyping tool, ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated norovirus occurrence and norovirus RNA levels in 156 samples collected from May 2013 to May 2014, across three different stages (52 samples each) of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also explored norovirus GII diversity in raw sewage samples by next-sequencing generation (NGS). In addition, we examined norovirus prevalence and molecular epidemiology from acute gastroenteritis cases. Using RT-qPCR, norovirus GI and GII was detected in 38.5% and 96.1% of raw sewage samples, 40.4% and 96.1% of primary effluent samples and 1.9% and 5.8% of final effluent samples, ...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
Influenza has been impacting public health on a global scale since the beginning of recorded history. Influenza, also known as the “flu,” has numerous organizations committed to public health research, developing vaccines, and educating on best practices to prepare for the upcoming flu season. By gaining an understanding of the flu through history, virology, and how it impacts our society, we can have a better appreciation for the commitment that’s involved with combating the flu. What Is Influenza (and What’s Not)? The eyes of an epidemiologist can twitch for a variety of reasons, one of them being...
Source: JEMS Special Topics - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Exclusive Articles Operations Source Type: news
This study investigated norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems at 1360 sites in seven metropolitan areas and nine provinces in 2015-2016. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, and turbidity content were assessed to analyze the water quality. In 2015, six sites were positive for the presence of NoV (0.88%) and in 2016, two sites were positive (0.29%); in total, NoV was detected in 8 of the 1360 sample sites (0.59%) investigated. Identified genotypes of NoV in groundwater included GI.5, 9 and GII.4, 6, 13, 17, and 21. GII.17 was the most prevalent genotype in treated groundwater used in the food industry. Thi...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Medical Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
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