Recent Progress in T reg Biology and Transplant Therapeutics

AbstractPurpose of ReviewRegulatory T cell (Treg) biology continues to evolve at a rapid pace. The role of Tregs in solid organ transplantation offers a unique window into Treg ontogeny and function as well as limitless possibilities for clinical application. Here we review recent significant discoveries and key translational work.Recent FindingsAdvances in transplantation deepen understanding of Treg differentiation, expansion, transcription, co-stimulation, and signaling. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing and single-cell analytics allow unprecedented insight into Treg repertoire diversity and phenotypic heterogeneity. Efforts to replace conventional immunosuppression with Treg adoptive immunotherapy are underway and coalescing around strategies to increase efficiency through development of donor-reactive Tregs.SummaryAdoptive immunotherapy with Tregs is a leading tolerogenic strategy. Early clinical trials suggest that Treg infusion is safe and reports on efficacy will soon follow.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

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AbstractRomidepsin (FK228), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), has anti-tumor effects against several types of solid tumors. Studies have suggested that HDACi could upregulate PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and change the state of anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. However, the influence of enhanced PD-L1 expression in tumor cells induced by romidepsin on anti-tumor immune responses is still under debate. So, the purpose of this study was to explore the anti-tumor effects and influence on immune responses of romidepsin in colon cancer. The results indicated that romidepsin inhibited proliferation, induced G0/G1 ce...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, this is the first study correlating Ca2+ signaling and NK cell-mediated ADCC triggered by the four IgG subclasses with the FCGR3A V158F SNP. Our findings indicate important differences in the interactions of IgG subclasses with FcγRIIIA/CD16a but no major impact of FCGR3A SNP and may therefore help to better correlate the functional properties of particular engineered therapeutic antibodies in vitro with individual differences of their clinical efficacy. PMID: 32620047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Piñero F, Tanno M, Soteras GA, Baña MT, Dirchwolf M, Fassio E, Ruf A, Mengarelli S, Borzi S, Fernández N, Ridruejo E, Descalzi V, Anders M, Mazzolini G, Reggiardo V, Marciano S, Perazzo F, Spina JC, McCormack L, Maraschio M, Lagues C, Gadano A, Villamil F, Silva M, Cairo F, Ameigeiras B, Argentinean Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (A.A.E.E.H) Abstract The A.A.E.E.H has developed this guideline for the best care of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from Argentina. It was done from May 2018 to March 2020. Specific clinical research questions were systematically sea...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Over the past few years, adoptive cell therapy, also known as immune effector cell (IEC) therapy (Maus and Nikiforow, 2017), has emerged as a leading technology, providing precise, immune-mediated antigen directed therapy against cancer. Broadly, cellular immunotherapy strategies include tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), activated tumor and viral specific T cells, and genetically modified T cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. CAR T cells are an effective, directed therapy, recently translated from the research phase of development to commercially available products for hematological malignancies.
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionPom ‐PAD‐Dara represents a promising multiagent regimen in heavily pretreated RRMM patients with high ORR and an acceptable safety profile.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the prototypical autoimmune disorder caused by specific autoantibodies at the neuromuscular junction. Broad-based immunotherapies, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, mycophenolate, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine, have been effective in controlling symptoms of myasthenia. While being effective in a majority of MG patients many of these immunosuppressive agents are associated with long-term side effects, often intolerable for patients, and take several months to be effective. With advances in translational research and drug development capabilities, more directed therapeutic agents that can alter ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, metabolomics is a promising approach for the assessment of biological age and appears complementary to established epigenetic clocks. Sedentary Behavior Raises the Risk of Cancer Mortality https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/06/sedentary-behavior-raises-the-risk-of-cancer-mortality/ Living a sedentary lifestyle is known to be harmful to long term health, raising the risk of age-related disease and mortality. Researchers here show that a sedentary life specifically increases cancer mortality, and does so independently of other factors. This is one of many, many reasons to maintain a re...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Despite high complete remission (CR) rates, relapse remains a significant problem among subsets of patients with B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and is associated with poor prognosis. The recent Food and Drug Administration approval of highly effective immunotherapies for B-lineage ALL, blinatumomab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, and tisagenlecleucel, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cell therapy, targeting CD19, or CD22, have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape for the treatment of B-ALL, resulting in high rates of deep and durable remissions.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
In this study, we histologically examined the distribution of leukemia cells in several organs using two leukemic mouse models produced by the administration of two cell lines (THP-1, a human myelomonocytic leukemia, and A20, a mouse B cell leukemia/lymphoma) to severe immunodeficient mice. Survival of the mice depended on the tumor burden. Although A20 and THP-1 tumor cells massively infiltrated the parenchyma of the liver and spleen at 21 days after transplantation, A20 cells were hardly found in connective tissues in Glisson's capsule in the liver as compared with THP-1 cells. In the bone marrow, there was more severe i...
Source: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Histochem Cytochem Source Type: research
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), T cell receptor (TCR) and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) engineered T cells, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, is a promising new approach to cancer treatment. ACT harnesses an individual's adaptive immune system to fight against cancer, with fewer side-effects and more specific anti-tumor activity. Despite their promise of ACT as curative, these therapies are often limited by the persistence and robustness of the responses of the T cells to the cancer cells. Altering metabolic pathways is one way to affect the actions of T cells, and diffe...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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