Epigenetic control in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and associated disease

AbstractKaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several malignancies of endothelial and B-cell origin. The fact that latently infected tumor cells in these malignancies do not express classical viral oncogenes suggests that pathogenesis of KSHV-associated disease results from multistep processes that, in addition to constitutive viral gene expression, may require accumulation of cellular alterations. Heritable changes of the epigenome have emerged as an important co-factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of many non-viral cancers. Since KSHV encodes a number of factors that directly or indirectly manipulate host cell chromatin, it is an intriguing possibility that epigenetic reprogramming also contributes to the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated tumors. The fact that heritable histone modifications have also been shown to regulate viral gene expression programs in KSHV-infected tumor cells underlines the importance of epigenetic control during latency and tumorigenesis. We here review what is presently known about the role of epigenetic regulation of viral and host chromatin in KSHV infection and discuss how viral manipulation of these processes may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated disease.
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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This study included 3435 PTCs, 1985 of which were PTMCs. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing for 221 PTCs and integrated these data with the data including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. The frequency of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)V600E mutation was higher in PTMCs >0.5 cm than that in very small PTMCs (≤0.5 cm) and decreased again in PTCs >2 cm. Among PTMCs, the prevalence of mutations in rat sarcoma (RAS) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter was not significantly different according to their size, but lower than in large PTCs. There was n...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTo elucidate the clinicopathological features, hospital-based care volume and prognoses associated with primary retroperitoneal sarcoma (PRS).MethodsClinical data on PRS cases, diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 (cohort A) and from 2012 to 2015 (cohort B), were obtained from the national hospital-based cancer registry in Japan. Since data on survival, 5  years after PRS diagnosis, were available only for cohort A, patient prognoses were analyzed in this group alone.ResultsThe numbers of participating hospitals were 154 in cohort A and 537 in cohort B. In total, 380 and 2011 patients with PRS were identified...
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma. There are two subtypes, fusion gene-positive RMS (FP-RMS) and fusion gene-negative RMS (FN-RMS), depending on the presence of a fusion g...
Source: Cancer Cell International - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Primary research Source Type: research
l Sumit Sahni Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest solid tumors in the world. Currently, there are no approved targeted therapies for PDAC. Mutations in Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) are known to be a major driver of PDAC progression, but it was considered an undruggable target until recently. Moreover, PDAC also suffers from drug delivery issues due to the highly fibrotic tumor microenvironment. In this perspective, we provide an overview of recent developments in targeting mutant KRAS and strategies to overcome drug delivery issues (e.g., nanoparticle delivery). Over...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
Conditions:   Radiation Induced Neoplasms;   Radiation-Induced Cancer;   Recurrent Sarcoma;   Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma Interventions:   Radiation: Hypofractionated radiotherapy;   Other: Hyperthermia Sponsor:   Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractEpigenetic processes are essential for normal development and the maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression in mammals. Changes in gene expression and malignant cellular transformation can result from disruption of epigenetic mechanisms, and global disruption in the epigenetic landscape is a key feature of cancer. The study of epigenetics in cancer has revealed that human cancer cells harbor both genetic alterations and epigenetic abnormalities that interplay at all stages of cancer development. Unlike genetic mutations, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible through epigenetic therapy, providing a ...
Source: Advances in Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Radiation Induced Neoplasms;   Radiation-Induced Cancer;   Recurrent Sarcoma;   Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma Interventions:   Radiation: Hypofractionated radiotherapy;   Other: Hyperthermia Sponsor:   Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
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Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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