Ear infection prevalence in prehistoric and historic populations of the southern Levant: A new diagnostic method

AbstractStudying infectious diseases in ancient times is of significant importance to our understanding of past populations' ways of life. Otitis media (OM) is beneficial for this purpose, since it is frequent and influenced by environmental conditions. The aims of the current study were to create a reliable criterion for identifying OM in skeletal material, and to follow trends regarding the prevalence of OM throughout the terminal Pleistocene ‐Holocene Levant.Complete petrous bones of 229 individuals from six populations of the terminal Pleistocene ‐Holocene Levant (14,900 cal BP–1,917 AD) were included in the study. The promontory of the middle ear was examined using a flexible videoscope and a microscope. The observations were validated by micro‐CT images. The absence or presence of bone remodeling on the promontory surface was registe red as well as the appearance of the promontory sulcus (open or covered). Kappa tests were carried out to examine intra‐ and inter‐observer variation. Chi‐square tests were carried out to examine the association between promontory appearance and period as well as the association between the pr esence of bone remodeling and the sulcus type.The suggested criteria were found to be reliable. A fluctuation in the prevalence of bone remodeling on the promontory surface was found during the studied period. The highest prevalence (80%) was among the protohistoric populations, followed by the prehistoric populations (ca. 60.6%), an...
Source: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology - Category: Science Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: A detailed contemporary description of paediatric mastoiditis presentation and management is presented. The findings broadly mirror those published by other UK centres, but suggest a higher rate of identified disease complications and surgical interventions. PMID: 32463007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research
Authors: Songu M, Islek A, Imre A, Aslan H, Aladag I, Pinar E, Oncel S PMID: 32469007 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital Source Type: research
We examined the expression of inflammatory cytokine- and ER stress-related genes by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the middle ear of C57BL/6J mice after challenge with peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PGPS), an agent inducing OM. We also evaluated the effect of the suppression of ER stress with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an ER stress inhibitor. The study revealed the upregulation of ER stress- and apoptosis-related gene expression after the PGPS treatment, specifically ATF6, CHOP, BIP, caspase-12, and caspase-3. TUDCA treatment of PGPS-treated mice decreased OM; reduced the expression of ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: IMCS use in the treatment of acute URI is highly prevalent despite lack of evidence for impact and safety. Prevalence is variable across multiple medical and surgical specialties including otorhinolaryngology. Administration of IMCS injection may contribute to the likelihood of a subsequent healthcare visit for the same indication. PMID: 32456500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Usually topical antibiotics, especially ciprofloxacin, is effective against ear infections but our case was different and the P. aeruginosa isolated from CSOM was resistant to most of the antibiotics. One reason for CSOM recurrence might be surgery failure. The routine and primary treatment for CSOM did not seem sufficient and tympanomastoidectomy is suggested to be the best treatment approach for these patients. PMID: 32423374 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: TLR4 regulates ROS and autophagy to control NETs formation against S.pn in the course of AOM. IMPACT: S.pn can induce NETs formation in vitro and in vivo; TLR4 regulates NETs formation by ROS and autophagy; NETs contribute to the clearance of bacteria in acute otitis media.In this study, we firstly found that autophagy and ROS were required for S.pn-induced NETs formation in the model of acute otitis media (AOM). And to some extent, TLR4 mediated NETs formation during AOM.Our research might provide a potential strategy for the treatment of otitis media. PMID: 32438368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Pediatric Research - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of bony dehiscence in acute otitis media patients with facial paresis did not differ from that in acute otitis media patients without facial paresis. An intact tympanic bony facial canal does not protect from facial paresis development. PMID: 32425144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research
Condition:   Otitis Media With Effusion Intervention:   Diagnostic Test: Wideband Tympanometry Sponsor:   Pamukkale University Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chih-Ho Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Adriano Agueras, Jo Southern, Chang-Chun Hsiao, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAllergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are well-described disease entities with broad exposure in clinical and research allergy forums. Associations between allergic inflammation and upper airway diseases of chronic laryngitis, otitis media, obstructive sleep apnea, and oral allergy syndrome are less well understood and described in the literature.Recent FindingsThis review discusses the relationship between atopy and diseases of the upper airway, oral cavity, larynx, and ear. The similar respiratory mucosal lining the upper aerodigestive tract, with sensitized mast cells and inflammatory mediators ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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