Evaluation of Serum Cryptococcal Antigen Testing Using Two Novel Semiquantitative Lateral Flow Assays in Persons with Cryptococcal Antigenemia Mycology

Early cryptococcal disease can be detected via circulating antigen in blood before fulminant meningitis develops, when early antifungal therapy improves survival. Two semiquantitative cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been developed, but their diagnostic performance has not been defined. Cryopreserved serum samples from HIV-infected Ugandans obtained as part of a prospective CrAg-screening cohort were tested in duplicate for CrAg by the CrAgSQ (IMMY) and CryptoPS (Biosynex) lateral flow assays. Case-controlled diagnostic performance was measured using the FDA-approved CrAg LFA (IMMY) as a reference standard via McNemar’s test. Of 99 serum samples tested, 57 were CrAg positive (CrAg+) by the CrAg LFA reference standard. By CrAgSQ, 57 were read as positive, with 98% sensitivity (56/57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 0.99) and 98% specificity (41/42; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.99) (McNemar’s, P = 0.99). The sample with a false-negative result by CrAgSQ (n = 1) had a titer of
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Mycology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Serum cryptococcal positivity is correlated with increased risk of Cryptococcal meningitis and mortality in PLHIV. We recommend the screening of asymptomatic PLHIV with CD4 ≤ 100/µL for serum cryptococcal antigen, so that pre-emptive treatment can be initiated to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID: 32860359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current HIV Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: Opportunistic neuroinfections are the most commonneurological manifestation in patients with AIDS, with cryptococcal meningitis being the most commonopportunistic neuroinfection occurring as AIDS-defining illness in one-third of the patients with neuro-AIDS.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we studied eleven clinical strains of theC.gattii species complex isolated from Guangxi, southern China. The genetic identity and variability of these isolates were analyzed via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and global isolates were evaluated. The mating type, physiological features and antifungal susceptibilities of these isolates were also characterized. Among the eleven isolates, six belonged toC.deuterogattii, while five belonged toC.gattii sensu stricto. TheC.deuterogattii strains from Guangxi, southern China were genetically variable and clu...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Validated commercial antigen tests, as used in this program, should be the new gold standard for histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis diagnosis. In their absence, 35% of disseminated histoplasmosis and 32.7% of cryptococcal meningitis cases would have been missed. Patients with multiple opportunistic infections were frequently diagnosed and strategies should be designed to screen patients irrespective of their clinical presentation. In low resource settings, Diagnostic Laboratory Hubs can deliver quality diagnostics services in record time at affordable prices.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data were characterized by a high prevalence of the Cryptococcal meningitis patients without HIV/AIDS and other underlying health conditions, a relatively high non-wild-type rate of fluconazole and amphotericin B resistance, and low genetic diversity in Cryptococcus strains. The present study will provide evidence for further improvement of the diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcosis in China.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract The incidence of infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) has been increasing over the last several years. Among the reasons for the expansion of these diseases and the appearance of new neuropathogens are globalization, global warming, and the increased proximity between humans and wild animals due to human activities such as deforestation. Neurotropism affecting normal brain function is shared by organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Neuroinfections caused by these agents activate immune responses, inducing neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, and neurodegenerati...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Abstract Cryptococcosis is a severe fungal disease causing 220,000 cases of cryptococcal meningitis yearly. The etiological agents of cryptococcosis are taxonomically grouped into at least two species complexes belonging to the genus Cryptococcus. All of these yeasts are environmentally ubiquitous fungi (often found in soil, leaves and decaying wood, tree hollows, and associated with bird feces especially pigeon guano). Infection in a range of animals including humans begins following inhalation of spores or aerosolized yeasts. Recent advances provide fundamental insights into the factors from both the pathogen an...
Source: Advances in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Adv Genet Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEvaluate the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical outcomes of cryptococcal infections in patients with advanced liver disease or liver transplantation.Recent FindingsCryptococcal infections in patients with advanced liver disease (ALD) are uncommon but associated with high mortality. Less than 10% of patients in a prospective study of non-HIV-infected cryptococcal meningitis patients had ALD. Significantly, fever was uncommon, resulting in delays in diagnosis. Modalities for diagnosing cryptococcal infections include the rapid lateral flow cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) assay from...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the role of IL-25, one of the type 2-inducing cytokines produced by epithelial cells, in contributing to the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis. We found that pulmonary but not systemic infection with a high-virulence strain of C. neoformans significantly induced pulmonary IL-25 expression in the lungs but not brains. In response to pulmonary infection, mice deficient in the surface IL-17 receptor B, a component of the IL-25R, exhibited improved survival with a decreased brain fungal burden. The absence of IL-25R signaling diminished the type 2 and enhanced the type 1 immune response that directe...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-characterized complication in immunocompromised patients with cryptococcal pneumonia or meningitis; however, isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis is a rare entity that occu...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
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