Research Articles A high-salt diet compromises antibacterial neutrophil responses through hormonal perturbation

The Western diet is rich in salt, which poses various health risks. A high-salt diet (HSD) can stimulate immunity through the nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (Nfat5)–signaling pathway, especially in the skin, where sodium is stored. The kidney medulla also accumulates sodium to build an osmotic gradient for water conservation. Here, we studied the effect of an HSD on the immune defense against uropathogenic E. coli–induced pyelonephritis, the most common kidney infection. Unexpectedly, pyelonephritis was aggravated in mice on an HSD by two mechanisms. First, on an HSD, sodium must be excreted; therefore, the kidney used urea instead to build the osmotic gradient. However, in contrast to sodium, urea suppressed the antibacterial functionality of neutrophils, the principal immune effectors against pyelonephritis. Second, the body excretes sodium by lowering mineralocorticoid production via suppressing aldosterone synthase. This caused an accumulation of aldosterone precursors with glucocorticoid functionality, which abolished the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone–driven glucocorticoid rhythm and compromised neutrophil development and antibacterial functionality systemically. Consistently, under an HSD, systemic Listeria monocytogenes infection was also aggravated in a glucocorticoid-dependent manner. Glucocorticoids directly induced Nfat5 expression, but pharmacological normalization of renal Nfat5 expression failed to restore the antibacterial defense...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 2 June 2020Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): S. Hernández-Gutiérrez, J. Roque-Jorge, A. López-Torres, G. Díaz-Rosas, A.J. García-Chequer, A. Contreras-Ramos
Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: J Genet Source Type: research
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Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundThe respiratory coefficient (RQ), as determined by indirect calorimetry (IC), classifies diet as being carbohydrate rich (RQ  = 0.7–0.8), fat rich (RQ = 0.9–1.0), or overfeeding (RQ >  1). We hypothesized that preoperative RQ may be associated with weight-loss outcomes after bariatric surgery.MethodsFrom 2016 to 2018, 137 obese patients were enrolled in a Bariatric Registry and underwent dietary and behavioral counseling, followed by preoperative IC. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and RQ of all patients was measured. Patients were classified as ov...
Source: Surgical Endoscopy - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Revista de Nutricao - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the specific regulatory roles of microRNA-219-5p (miR-219-5p) on ulcerative colitis (UC), and reveal the potential mechanisms relating with the differentiation of Treg/Th17 cells. Methods: The mouse model of chronic UC was established by oral administration of 3% dextran sodium sulfate for three cycles. After intravenous injected with lentivirus (LV)-miR-219-5p for 24 h, the disease activity index (DAI), colon length, as well as the serum levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, -17A, -21, and -23 were measured. In addition, the histopathological changes in colon tissues were observed by Hematoxylin...
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we sought to establish a new, carefully optimized method to extract and purify non-denatured, native FliC from the reference UPEC strain CFT073 to be suitable for immune assays. To achieve purification of FliC to homogeneity, we used a mutant CFT073 strain containing deletions in four major chaperone-usher fimbriae operons (type 1, F1C and two P fimbrial gene clusters; CFT073Δ4). A sequential flagella extraction method based on mechanical shearing, ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, protein concentration and endotoxin removal was applied to CFT073Δ4. Protein purity and integrity ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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