How Errors in Divvying Up Chromosomes Lead to Defects in Cells

Note to our Biomedical Beat readers: Echoing the sentiments NIH Director Francis Collins made on his blog, NIGMS is making every effort during the COVID-19 pandemic to keep supporting the best and most powerful science. In that spirit, we’ll continue to bring you stories across a wide range of NIGMS topics. We hope these posts offer a respite from the coronavirus news when needed. Mitosis is fundamental among all organisms for reproduction, growth, and cell replacement. When a cell divides, it’s vital that the two new daughter cells maintain the same genes as the parent. In one step of mitosis, chromosomes are segregated into two groups, which will go into the two new daughter cells. But if the chromosomes don’t divide properly, one daughter cell may have too many and the other too few. Having the wrong number of chromosomes, a condition called aneuploidy, can trigger cells to grow out of control. An illustration of chromosomes being segregated equally and unequally during mitosis. Credit: Deluca Lab, Colorado State University. How chromosome segregation errors disrupt cell division is an important area of research. Although it’s been studied for decades, new aspects are still being uncovered and much remains unknown. NIGMS-funded scientists are studying different aspects of mitosis and chromosome segregation. Understanding the details can provide vital insight into an essential biological process and may also be the key to developing be...
Source: Biomedical Beat Blog - National Institute of General Medical Sciences - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Genes Cellular Processes Chromosomes Source Type: blogs

Related Links:

Authors: Chang C, Wu H, Lu Q Abstract Food allergy is a global health problem, particularly in developed countries. It is mainly mediated by Th2 cell and IgE produced by B cells. While the pathogenesis of IgE-mediated food allergy is quite straightforward, the factors that lead to the development of food allergies at any age in children and adults are unclear. Recent studies have revealed that genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures contribute to the development of atopy. In this chapter, we discuss the interplay between these three key elements, reveal how epigenetic modifications may mediate genetic su...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Ceribelli A, Selmi C Abstract Genomic predisposition fails to fully explain the onset of complex diseases, which is well illustrated by the largely incomplete concordance among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA, are the link between environmental stimuli and disease onset on a permissive genetic background in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Autoimmune diseases now include almost 100 conditions and are estimated to cumulatively affect up to 5% of the world population with a healthcare expenditure superior to cancer wor...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang L, Lu Q, Chang C Abstract Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA (miRNA), can produce heritable phenotypic changes without a change in DNA sequence. Disruption of gene expression patterns which are governed by epigenetics can result in autoimmune diseases, cancers, and various other maladies. Mechanisms of epigenetics include DNA methylation (and demethylation), histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs. Compared to numerous studies that have focused on the field of genetics, research on epigenetics is fairly recent. In contrast to ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Boris Johnson backs DominicCummings despite outcry; US bars foreign travellers arriving from Brazil; India resumes domestic flightsGlobal report: US suspends travel from Brazil as schools reopen in parts of AustraliaSpain enters Phase 1 of eased restrictionsUK adviser Cummings facing possible police investigationUK coronavirus updates - liveCoronavirus latest: at a glance9.22amBSTFrom crowded informal settlements to conservation areas teeming with wildlife, cottage industries have popped up around the globe producing and distributing face masks for frontline workers, taxi drivers, market sellers and more, Kate Hodal report...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World news Australia news UK news US news Asia Pacific Russia China Brazil Americas Africa Middle East and North Africa Science Infectious diseases Europe Source Type: news
[VOA] Thousands of Muslims in Cameroon's capital, Yaound é, have defied Sunday's ban of Eid-al Fitr public prayers, ordered as part of measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.  There have been 4,400 confirmed cases and 197 deaths in the central African state in less than three months. The ban was announced after more than 500 people tested positive for COVID-19 in Cameroon within 24 hours.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[allAfrica] As of May 25, confirmed the COVID-19 case total from 55 African countries has reached 111,825.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[East African] The number of Africans who have tested positive for Covid-19 has hit 100,000 and health experts warn that the continent is yet to reach the peak of its infection curve. This puts to test ongoing plans to re-open economies.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[The Conversation Africa] A court in South Africa recently passed a judgment that berated the country's military and police for their conduct in enforcing the nationwide COVID-19 lockdown.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[The Conversation Africa] Researchers are racing against time to find ways to treat and prevent COVID-19. There is currently no treatment for the disease, and the World Health Organisation has created Solidarity, a global clinical trial which is testing four drugs as possible treatment. There are also more than 90 vaccine trials being undertaken worldwide, but it may take more than a year before a vaccine is developed. And there is currently a global shortage of COVID-19 testing kits.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Latest figures from public health authorities on the spread of Covid-19 in the United Kingdom. Find out how many confirmed cases have been reported in each of England ’s local authoritiesCoronavirus - live news updatesFind all our coronavirus coverage hereHow to protect yourself from infectionPlease note: these are government figures on numbers of confirmed cases – some people who report symptoms are not being tested, and are not included in these counts.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science World news UK news Source Type: news
More News: Biology | Blogging | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cardiology | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | Genetics | Graduation | Grants | Heart | Heart Transplant | Kidney Transplant | Pandemics | Parasitic Diseases | Parasitology | Physics | Reproduction Medicine | Research | Science | Sleeping Sickness | Study | University of Washington | Urology & Nephrology