Adverse events following immunization with typhoid conjugate vaccine in an outbreak setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan.

Adverse events following immunization with typhoid conjugate vaccine in an outbreak setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Vaccine. 2020 Mar 19;: Authors: Qamar FN, Yousafzai MT, Khaliq A, Karim S, Memon H, Junejo A, Baig I, Rahman N, Bhurgry S, Afroz H, Sami U Abstract Pakistan is facing the world's largest outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhoid. Vaccination campaign for children aged 6 months to 10 years old with Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (Typbar-TCV®) was conducted in high-risk areas of Hyderabad during 2018. About 207,000 children were vaccinated. Here we report the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) during the campaign. The campaign was carried out using outreach and fixed centre strategy. Community mobilizers visited each household to perform line listing and mobilize parents with age-eligible children. Children were observed for 30 min post-vaccination. Two-pronged strategy was used for ascertainment of AEFI. A 24/7 hotline number was provided to all parents/caretakers (n = 199,861) to report AEFI during 14 days following immunization. An age-stratified (n = 7139 children) were actively followed at days 7 and 14 for the ascertainment of AEFI. All AEFI were examined by three trained medical officers. A structured questionnaire using Brighton collaboration criteria with level 3 diagnostic certainty was used for the recording of AEFI. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel Office 365. Ove...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy. PMID: 32437343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Conclusion In 1919 George A. Soper1 wrote that the deadly Spanish Flu pandemic that swept around the earth was without any precedents, and that there had been no such catastrophe ‘so sudden, so devastating and so universal’. He remarked that, “The most astonishing thing about the pandemic was the complete mystery which surrounded it. Nobody seemed to know what the disease was, where it came from or how to stop it. Anxious minds are inquiring today whether another wave of it will come again”. With close to 3 million positive cases and around 0.2 million deaths worldwide, the coronavirus has compelle...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Asia-Pacific Civil Society Development & Aid Featured Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
‘Challenge’ studies would deliberately give coronavirus to healthy volunteersCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageControversial trials in which volunteers are intentionally infected with Covid-19 could accelerate vaccine development, according to the World Health Organization, which has releasednew guidance on how the approach could be ethically justified despite the potential dangers for participants.So-called challenge trials are a mainstream approach in vaccine development and have been used in malaria, typhoid and flu, but there are treatments available for these diseases if a v...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medical research Coronavirus outbreak World Health Organization Infectious diseases Science World news Vaccines and immunisation Source Type: news
Reviving the "Moore swab": a classic environmental surveillance tool involving filtration of flowing surface water and sewage water to recover typhoidal Salmonella. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 Apr 24;: Authors: Sikorski MJ, Levine MM Abstract The Moore swab is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" micro...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. We found 47 publications describing 45,215 cases in outbreaks occurring in 25 countries from 1989 through 2018. Outbreak characteristics varied considerably by WHO region, with median outb...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
The year of the rat is off to an ominous start. “We just stay home and don’t go out,” says Mr. Dong. The 33-year-old researcher, who provided only one name, has no other options. He, his wife and their 3-month-old daughter live in Wuhan, the epicenter of an unfolding global health crisis. They’re treating the forced time at home as a holiday, though he says, “this is different than any of them before.” Families like his huddle in their homes, fearful that if they venture out, they will get sick. Since the first cases of a previously unknown pneumonia-like illness emerged in December, Wuh...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection in Laos based on isolates accrued over 18 years at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane. All blood cultures collected from patients presenting with fever submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Mahosot Hospital (February 2000-December 2018) were included. This included patients from Vientiane and four provincial hospitals and one typhoid outbreak investigation. A total of 913 (1.5%) of 60,384 blood cultures were positive for S. Typhi. The majority of isolates with data available (712/898, 79.3%) were ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Pakistan began vaccinating millions of children against typhoid on Friday to try to control a drug-resistant superbug outbreak of the fever that has already infected some 11,000 people since 2016 and risks spreading internationally.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Lassa fever outbreaks West Africa have caused up to 10,000 deaths annually. Primary infection occurs from contact with Lassa virus-infected rodents and exposure to their excreta, blood, or meat. Incubation takes 2 to 21  days. Symptoms are difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid, dengue, yellow fever, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic, to mild, to severe fulminant disease. Ribavirin can improve outcomes. Overall mortality is between 1% and 15%. Lassa fever s hould be considered in the differential diagnosis with travel to West Africa. There is an urgent need for...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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