Human and Arabidopsis alpha ‐ketoglutarate‐dependent dioxygenase homolog proteins—New players in important regulatory processes

AbstractThe family of AlkB homolog (ALKBH) proteins, the homologs ofEscherichia coli AlkB 2 ‐oxoglutarate (2OG), and Fe(II)‐dependent dioxygenase are involved in a number of important regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells including repair of alkylation lesions in DNA, RNA, and nucleoprotein complexes. There are nine human and thirteenArabidopsis thaliana ALKBH proteins described, which exhibit diversified functions. Among them, human ALKBH5 and FaT mass and Obesity ‐associated (FTO) protein and Arabidopsis ALKBH9B and ALKBH10B have been recognized as N6 methyladenine (N6meA) demethylases, the most abundant posttranscriptional modification in mRNA. The FTO protein is reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and involved in multiple other processes, while ALKBH5 is induced by hypoxia. Arabidopsis ALKBH9B is an N6meA demethylase influencing plant susceptibility to viral infections via m6A/A ratio control in viral RNA. ALKBH10B has been discovered to be a functional Arabidopsis homolog of FTO; thus, it is also an RNA N6meA demethylase involved in plant flowering and several other regulatory processes including control of metabolism. High ‐throughput mass spectrometry showed multiple sites of human ALKBH phosphorylation. In the case of FTO, the type of modified residue decides about the further processing of the protein. This modification may result in subsequent protein ubiquitination and proteolysis, or in the blocking of these p rocesses. However, ...
Source: IUBMB Life - Category: Research Authors: Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE Source Type: research

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AbstractThe family of AlkB homolog (ALKBH) proteins, the homologs ofEscherichia coli AlkB 2 ‐oxoglutarate (2OG), and Fe(II)‐dependent dioxygenase are involved in a number of important regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells including repair of alkylation lesions in DNA, RNA, and nucleoprotein complexes. There are nine human and thirteenArabidopsis thaliana ALKBH proteins described, which exhibit diversified functions. Among them, human ALKBH5 and FaT mass and Obesity ‐associated (FTO) protein and Arabidopsis ALKBH9B and ALKBH10B have been recognized as N6 methyladenine (N6meA) demethylases, the most abundant posttra...
Source: IUBMB Life - Category: Research Authors: Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE Source Type: research
Conclusions: T2D individuals harbored a particular microbial profile different to non-T2D microbiota. Metabolic control was related to dysbiosis of microbiota—HbA1c>8% related to periodontitis and obesity or dyslipidemia with the predominance of saccharolytic bacteria, irrespective of their periodontal condition.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
b W, Laudes M, Franke A, Huttenhower C Abstract Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Microbial taxonomic and functional profiles were analyzed along with medical histories, serum metabolomics, biometrics, and dietary data. Obesity was associated wit...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study also found that Proteus DNA, a genus with many uropathogenic species (Drzewiecka, 2016), was more prevalent in women with OAB compared to asymptomatic controls (Curtiss et al., 2017). IC A recent study by Abernethy et al. suggested that the microbiome may play a role in IC (Abernethy et al., 2017). In this study, 16S rRNA analysis determined the microbiome of catheterized urine from women (n = 40) with IC was not dominated by a single genus and was less likely to contain Lactobacillus compared to asymptomatic women. Abernethy et al. also showed that L. acidophilus was associated with less severe scores on the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we identified 37 genus-level core bacteria from feces of 101 healthy mice with different ages, sexes, and mouse strains in three previous studies. They collectively represented nearly half of the total sequences, and predominantly included carbohydrate- and amino acids-metabolizing bacteria and immunomodulatory bacteria. Among them, Anaerostipes indwelt the gut of all healthy mice. Co-abundance analysis showed that these core genera were clustered into five groups (Group C1–C5), which were ecologically related. For example, the abundances of Group C2 including probiotics Bifidobacterium and Lactobacill...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study might provide evidence that GQD treats diarrhea maybe involved in modulating gut microbiota and increasing SCFA levels. Introduction Diarrheal diseases cause approximately 1.7 billion new infections and 0.76 million deaths in children of under 5 years of age annually and are thus the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries (Kotloff et al., 2012, 2013). Outbreaks of such diseases are usually related to infection by common causative agents, mainly rotavirus, Salmonella enterica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (Hodges and Gill, 2010; Kolenda et al., ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Giuseppe Ristagno1*, Francesca Fumagalli1, Barbara Bottazzi2, Alberto Mantovani2,3,4, Davide Olivari1, Deborah Novelli1 and Roberto Latini1 1Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research IRCCS, Milan, Italy 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy 3Humanitas University, Milan, Italy 4The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom The long pentraxin PTX3 is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally by stromal and myeloid cells in response to proinflammatory signals and microbial moieties. The p...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Michio Kawano1, Masaya Miyoshi1 and Tadaaki Miyazaki2* 1Milk Science Research Institute, Megmilk Snow Brand Co. Ltd., Saitama, Japan 2Department of Probiotics Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan Lactobacillus helveticus SBT2171 (LH2171) has been reported to ameliorate the development of autoimmune diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice and inhibit interleukin (IL)-6 production in antigen-presenting cells in vitro. Regulation of cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells might be critical for the anti-inflamma...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Smith Etareri Evivie1,2†, Amro Abdelazez1,3, Bailiang Li1†, Xin Bian4, Wan Li1, Jincheng Du1, Guicheng Huo1* and Fei Liu1 1Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Ministry of Education, College of Food Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China 2Food Science and Nutrition Unit, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria 3Department of Dairy Microbiology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt 4Department of Food Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin, China Foodborne pathogens are a ma...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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