Clinical conundrum: concomitant high-risk pulmonary embolism and acute ischemic stroke
AbstractHigh-risk PE can be complicated by the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO), which can lead to paradoxical systemic embolization, including cerebral embolism ultimately leading to acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Acute management is challenging given the competing benefits and risks of systemic thrombolysis. Herein, we aim to provide a review of clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, and treatment and outcome from the available literature, with the hopes of providing insight into treatment options. We followed the guidelines outlined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A systematic literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE database, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for all reported cases/case series of concomitant high-risk PE and paradoxical ischemic stroke was conducted from inception to July 2019. Twenty-nine cases from 27 articles (26 single case reports, 1 case series of 3 patients) were included. There were 10 men and 19 women, ranging in age from 29 to 81 years (mean 56.1 ± 13.5 years). PFO was diagnosed in 89.7% of patients, mostly by transesophageal echocardiography. Treatment modalities included systemic thrombolysis (40%), anticoagulation alone (36%), surgical thrombectomy (16%), and percutaneous thrombectomy (8%). Overall mortality rate was 31%. Patients receiving thrombolysis and surgical thrombectomy had the most favorable outcome. Survival to discharge was 90% (9 out ...
We present a case report of a patient with a pulmonary embolus placed on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation who developed venous cannula migration through an undiagnosed patent foramen ovale causing an ischemic stroke due to a thrombus and requiring thrombectomy and device closure of the atrial defect.
Conclusion: VTE can be detected in patients with CS linked to PFO. While –based on the presented literature–routine screening for VTE in patients with CS linked to PFO does not appear justified, history taking, and clinical exam should consider concomitant VTE. Whenever clinically suspected, the threshold to trigger ancillary testing for VTE should be low. Among patients with an acute PE and PFO, vigilance for new neurologic deficits should be increased, with a low threshold for brain imaging.
Ka U Lio, Maruti Kumaran, Parth RaliLung India 2019 36(6):564-566
PMID: 31569246 [PubMed - in process]
WEDNESDAY, May 8, 2019 -- For patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), the frequency of recent ischemic stroke is higher in those with patent foramen ovale (PFO), according to a study published online May 7 in the Annals of Internal...
Screening PE patients for patent foramen ovale with the aim of identifying those at risk for ischemic stroke who may be eligible for indefinite anticoagulation could be justified, a new study suggests.Medscape Medical News
Conclusion: Frequency of recent ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic PE was higher in patients with PFO than in those without PFO. This finding supports the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is an important mechanism of ischemic stroke in patients with PFO. Primary Funding Source: French Ministry of Health. PMID: 31060047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
We report a rare case of large-cell, high-grade neuroendocrine lung cancer embolus occluding the basilar artery, which likely detached into the bloodstream from the lung after intruding into a pulmonary vein. The embolus was treated with endovascular aspiration, and achieved modified Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction 2c revascularization. After initial neurological recovery, the patient suffered respiratory arrest and support was withdrawn 48 h later. We discuss the tumor characteristics and implications for treatment of acute ischemic stroke in patients with cancer diagnoses. PMID: 30786802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionsHigh blood troponin T, NT-proBNP, RV dilatation/systolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension predicted in-hospital mortality. PFO/RLS presence and ST were predictors of clinically apparent/silent brain infarction.
Patent foramen ovale is frequently observed in the general population. In case of massive pulmonary embolism, the sudden increase in the right heart cavity's pressure may cause a right-to-left shunting across this foramen, which could be associated with conflicting outcomes. Herein, we report a case of reversible cardiac arrest preceded by seizures, and followed by hemodynamic stability without any vasopressor. A brain CT-scan showed a limited ischemic stroke. Initial echocardiographic assessment revealed an acute cor pulmonale and a right-to-left intracardiac shunt across a large patent foramen ovale, suggesting the diagn...