Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Encoding IL12 Controls Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult-to-treat disease with high rates of local recurrence, distant metastasis, and poor overall survival with existing therapies. Thus, there is an unmet medical need to develop new treatment regimen(s) for TNBC patients. An oncolytic herpes simplex virus encoding a master anti-tumor cytokine, interleukin 12, (designated G47Δ-mIL12) selectively kills cancer cells while inducing anti-tumor immunity. G47Δ-mIL12 efficiently infected and killed murine (4T1 and EMT6) and human (HCC1806 and MDA-MB-468) mammary tumor cells in vitro. In vivo in the 4T1 syngeneic TNBC model, it significantly reduced primary tumor burden and metastasis, both at early and late stages of tumor development. The virus-induced local and abscopal effects were confirmed by significantly increased infiltration of CD45+ leukocytes and CD8+ T cells, and reduction of granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs in tumors, both treated and untreated contralateral, and in the spleen. Significant trafficking of dendritic cells (DCs) were only observed in spleens of virus-treatment group, indicating that DCs are primed and activated in the tumor-microenvironment following virotherapy, and trafficked to lymphoid organs for activation of immune cells, such as CD8+ T cells. DC priming/activation could be associated with virally enhanced expression of several antigen processing/presentation genes in the tumor microenvironment, as confirmed by NanoString gene expression analy...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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We report the translatomes of resistant murine “4T1” breast cancer cells infected with three of the most clinically advanced oncolytic viruses: herpes simplex virus 1, reovirus, and vaccinia virus. Common among all three infections are translationally de-repressed mRNAs, including Inpp5e, encoding an inositol 5-phosphatase that modifies lipid second messenger signaling. We find that viral infection induces the expression of an Inpp5e mRNA variant that lacks repressive upstream open reading frames (uORFs) within its 5′ leader and is efficiently translated. Furthermore, we show that INPP5E contributes to an...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Contributors : Huy-Dung Hoang ; Tyson E Graber ; Tommy Alain ; Seyed M JafarnejadSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusResidual cell-intrinsic innate immunity in cancer cells hampers infection with oncolytic viruses. Control of mRNA translation is an important feature of innate immunity, yet the identity of mRNA substrates that participate in host defences remain ill-defined. We characterized the translatome of resistant murine “4T1” breast cancer cells infected with three of the most clinically advanced oncolytic viruses: Herpes Simplex virus 1, Reovirus and Vac...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
ConclusionThe new HSV-1 based platform described provides a potent and versatile approach to developing new oncolytic immunotherapies for clinical use. Each of the modifications employed was demonstrated to aid in optimizing the potential of the virus to both directly kill tumors and to lead to systemic therapeutic benefit. For clinical use, these viruses are expected to be most effective in combination with other anti-cancer agents, in particular PD1/L1-targeted immune checkpoint blockade. The first virus from this program (expressing GALV-GP-R− and hGM-CSF) has entered clinical development alone and in combination ...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
a Schmidt The major type I interferon-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) surround and infiltrate certain tumors like malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer, and ovarian and breast cancer. The presence of pDC in these tumors is associated with an unfavorable prognosis for the patients as long as these cells are unstimulated. Upon activation by synthetic Toll-like receptor agonists or viruses, however, pDC develop cytotoxic activities. Viruses have the additional advantage to augment cytotoxic activities of pDC via lytic replication in malignant lesions. These effects turn cold tumors into hotspots, recruitin...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Gulcin Tezcan1, Ekaterina V. Martynova1, Zarema E. Gilazieva1, Alan McIntyre2, Albert A. Rizvanov1 and Svetlana F. Khaiboullina1,3* 1Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia 2Centre for Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, United States Inflammation has a crucial role in protection against various pathogens. The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein signaling complex that is linked to pathogen sensing and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions Several model systems are now available to characterize the MSC-tumour interplay in the TME. These offer early promise in establishing robust preclinical platforms for the identification of crucial molecular pathways and for the assessment of clinical efficacy of novel drugs to inhibit cancer development and progression. However, selection of the right model for a given study should be shaped on the purpose, and should also consider fixed biological, biochemical, and biophysical parameters according to the specific tumour type. Finally, in order to get reliable and useful results to be translated to the clinic...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we treated egg-laying hens with DA, screened for key mRNAs and lncRNAs related to immune regulation using transcriptome technology, and performed cell experiments to explore the specific molecular biological mechanisms underlying the regulation of immune responses by lncRNAs. Materials and Methods Materials The DA used in this study was synthetically produced by the Kai Meng Co. (Xi An, Shanxi, China) Chemical Plant with a purity of 99.9%. Feeding Experimental Design and Bird Management The experimental animal procedures were approved by the China Agricultural University Animal Care and Use Committee (B...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we extended our previous joint gene analysis framework to joint gene set analysis framework. Base on the assumption that similar disease tends to share similar disease-related genes and pathways (Carson et al., 2017; Qin and Lu, 2018), we developed two joint gene set analysis frameworks aiming at improving identification power of enriched gene sets by borrowing different levels of information from other similar diseases. Compared with previous joint gene analysis framework, we unified DE gene/pathway statistic modeling through a two-component beta-uniform mixture model of p-values and combined the model with...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Cheng L, Jiang H, Fan J, Wang J, Hu P, Ruan Y, Liu R Abstract Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV-1) vectors are promising therapeutic agents for cancer. The deletion of the γ34.5 gene eliminates the neurovirulence but attenuates virus replication at the same time. The carboxyl-terminus of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A (also known as MyD116/GADD34) is homologous to that of γ34.5; hence, it may substitute for γ34.5 to enhance the replication and cytotoxicity of the virus. To investigate whether the C-terminus of MyD116 can enhance the anti-tumour efficacy of G47Δ on...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
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