Colocalized neurotransmitters in the hindbrain cooperate in adaptation to chronic hypernatremia.

Colocalized neurotransmitters in the hindbrain cooperate in adaptation to chronic hypernatremia. Brain Struct Funct. 2020 Mar 21;: Authors: Matuska R, Zelena D, Könczöl K, Papp RS, Durst M, Guba D, Török B, Varnai P, Tóth ZE Abstract Chronic hypernatremia activates the central osmoregulatory mechanisms and inhibits the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Noradrenaline (NE) release into the periventricular anteroventral third ventricle region (AV3V), the supraoptic (SON) and hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) from efferents of the caudal ventrolateral (cVLM) and dorsomedial (cDMM) medulla has been shown to be essential for the hypernatremia-evoked responses and for the HPA response to acute restraint. Notably, the medullary NE cell groups highly coexpress prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 (nesfatin), therefore, we assumed they contributed to the reactions to chronic hypernatremia. To investigate this, we compared two models: homozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI) and Wistar rats subjected to chronic high salt solution (HS) intake. HS rats had higher plasma osmolality than DI rats. PrRP and nesfatin mRNA levels were higher in both models, in both medullary regions compared to controls. Elevated basal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and impaired restraint-induced TH, PrRP and nesfatin expression elevations in the cVLM were, however, detected only...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research

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AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in adult hypopituitary patients.Patients and methodsRetrospective, cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of hypopituitary adult patients followed in a single reference center for pituitary diseases. MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria. Patients with 18 years or older, presenting two or more anterior pituitary deficiencies associated or not with diabetes insipidus (DI), were included, while patients with hypopituitarism due to Acromegaly or Cushing ’s dis...
Source: Pituitary - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: We recommend routine serum sodium testing on the seventh post-operative day for all patients undergoing pituitary surgery. Most patients remain asymptomatic and unless they are detected early they can go on to develop serious complications.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
an Hamzah Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be congenital or acquired, results from the failure of the kidney to respond to the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). This will lead to excessive water loss from the body in the form of urine. The kidney, therefore, has a crucial role in maintaining water balance and it is vital to restore this function in an artificial kidney. Herein, an ultrasensitive and highly selective aptameric graphene-based field-effect transistor (GFET) sensor for ADH detection was developed by directly immobilizing ADH-specific aptamer on a surface-modified suspended graphene channel. This ...
Source: Sensors - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsSPAs could be defined as pituitary adenomas completely or partially located in the suprasellar region. There were both similarities and differences among the different anatomic subtypes of SPA. For patients who were suspected of having SPAs, visual field tests, pituitary hormone evaluation and MRI were necessary. Because imaging examination is not a reliable method, surgery is the only way to confirm the tumor origin. Extended endoscopic TSS might be a safe and efficient approach to remove these tumors, but more studies are needed to verify this conclusion. For type II SPA, the pituitary stalk should be carefull...
Source: Pituitary - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Polyuria-polydipsia syndrome consists of the three main entities: central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Reliable distinction between these diagnoses is essential as treatment differs substantially, with the wrong treatment potentially leading to serious complications. Past diagnostic measures using the classical water deprivation test had several pitfalls and clinicians were often left with uncertainity concerning the diagnosis. With the establishment of copeptin, a stable and reliable surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, diagnosis of the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome has ...
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research
BackgroundEndoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) for the resection of pituitary adenoma has become more common throughout the past decade. Although most patients have a short postoperative hospitalization, others require a more prolonged stay. We aimed to identify predictors for prolonged hospitalization in the setting of ETS for pituitary adenomas.MethodsA retrospective chart review as performed on 658 patients undergoing ETS for pituitary adenoma at a single tertiary care academic center from 2005 to 2019. Length of stay (LoS) was defined as date of surgery to date of discharge. Patients with LoS in the top 10th percen...
Source: International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of EETA in 33 patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA). Thirty-three patients who underwent EETA in Eighth People's Hospital of Shenzhen between January 2013 and December 2017 were included in the comprehensive analysis. Factors affecting the extent of resection and postoperative remission rates were also reviewed. The total cut rate was 63.6% (21), and the total remission rate was 66.7% (22) in all patients after surgery. The cure rate was 60.6% (20) for 33 patients. The total removal rate and remission rate were significantly different (P = .01, P = .007) fo...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Xylitol is an approved food additive that is widely used as a sweetener in many manufactured products. It is also used in pharmaceuticals. Secondary oxalosis resulting from high dietary oxalate has been report...
Source: BMC Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
Conditions:   Sellar and Suprasellar Masses;   Pituitary Tumor Intervention:   Sponsor:   Mayo Clinic Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractBackgroundWolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare, monogenic neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by insulin requiring non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy which are usually the earliest and commonest manifestations. However, there are other features which are under-recognized, adding to morbidity and premature mortality in these patients.MethodsFive patients (three males, two females) with genetically confirmed WFS at a single tertiary care centre were prospectively followed up. Their symptomatology, clinical profile, genetic analysis and radiology were analyzed. Multidisciplinary approach was used...
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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