Deletion of p16 prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and osteocyte senescence.

Deletion of p16 prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and osteocyte senescence. Am J Transl Res. 2020;12(2):672-683 Authors: Li J, Karim MA, Che H, Geng Q, Miao D Abstract To investigate whether p16 deletion can prevent osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency, we first confirmed that p16 protein expression levels were significantly up-regulated in bony tissue of ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type mice. Eight-week-old wild-type and p16-/- mice were then sham-operated or bilateral OVX. After 12 weeks, the bone phenotypes of all models were analyzed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology. The results showed that p16 deficiency could rescue OVX-induced osteoporosis by significantly increased bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, total collagen positive area, osteoblast number, type I collagen positive area, fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-f) and alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f with up-regulation of the mRNA expression levels of Alp, Runx2, type I collagen and osteocalcin, and significantly reduced osteoclast surface and the ratio of RANKL/OPG mRNA expression level. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that p16 deletion inhibited OVX-induced oxidative stress and bone cell senescence, such as a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species levels, up-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 protein expression levels, and reduction of the percent...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses imaging modalities for fracture repair assessment, with an emphasis on pragmatic clinical and translational use, best practices for implementation, and challenges and opportunities for continuing research.Recent FindingsSemiquantitative radiographic union scoring remains the clinical gold standard, but has questionable reliability as a surrogate indicator of structural bone healing, particularly in early-stage, complex, or compromised healing scenarios. Alternatively, computed tomography (CT) scanning enables quantitative assessment of callus morphometry and mechanics through ...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Objective: Immunological abnormalities, the resulting endocrinopathies and their treatments may impact bone health in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, APS1). The aim of the present study was to describe skeletal characteristics in patients with APECED and the prevalence and risk factors of compromised bone health.Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on 44 patients (27 females) with APECED and 82 age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched control subjects (54 females). We determined the prevalence of osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiome...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionThese modified recommendations provide guidance for rheumatologists, radiologists and healthcare professionals on timely diagnosis of axSpA and disease management with appropriate imaging modalities.
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate rib fracture rate as well as rib fracture characteristics after thoracic trauma in patients with normal versus diminished bone mineral density (BMD). A retrospective cohort study of persons aged 50 years or older presenting to the Emergency Department after sustaining blunt thoracic trauma between July 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017, was performed. Patient and trauma characteristics and DXA scan results were collected. Rib fracture rate and characteristics were evaluated on a radiograph and/or CT scan of the thorax. In total, 119 patients were included for analysis. Fifty-eight of them (49%) ha...
Source: Osteoporosis International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Abstract An 87-year-old woman with a history of osteoporosis presented to the emergency department with complaints of low back pain and difficulty walking due to falling onto her left hip 2 weeks prior. Given the delay in diagnostic evaluation and persistent symptoms, computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine was ordered. The results of the CT were read as noncontributory and a physical therapist was consulted. Following examination, the physical therapist recommended left hip radiographs. A CT scan of the hip, which was ordered due to its superior specificity in detecting subtle fractures and to assist interve...
Source: Physical Therapy - Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Tags: J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Source Type: research
We report a high vertebral fracture prevalence and incidence in transplantation-eligible patients on dialysis, suggesting that these patients may benefit from radiographic screening for vertebral fractures. Parathyroid hormone had a U-shaped association with vertebral fracture risk.IntroductionVertebral fractures are often overlooked, but even undiagnosed vertebral fractures negatively impact physical functioning, quality of life, and mortality. The risk of vertebral fractures in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is unclear, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) might play a role in the development of vertebral fractures. We...
Source: Osteoporosis International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
This review proposes a structured approach to analyzing conventional radiographs of adult hips by focusing on alterations of radiological bone density, femoral head contours, and the joint space. Conventional radiography enables detecting subtle changes in cortical contours and joint space width due to its high spatial resolution. It is limited to the detection of cortical changes in areas to which the x-ray beam is tangent. It has reduced sensitivity for the detection of trabecular bone and medullary changes. Radiographic findings in common hip disorders, such as osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, transient osteoporosis, and ...
Source: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Sacral fractures result from high-impact trauma or in the form of insufficiency or pathologic fractures, resulting from osteoporosis, radiation therapy, or malignancy. In the emergency setting, the escalating use of computed tomography has substantially increased diagnosis of sacral fractures, which are frequently occult on radiographs. Radiologists should be familiar with and create reports using the most current fracture classification systems, because this improves communication with the treatment team and optimizes patient care. Sacroplasty is a safe, minimally invasive treatment option for many types of sacral fractur...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractObjectivesTo develop and evaluate a method for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement based on dual-layer spectral CT scout scans.MethodsA post-processing algorithm using a pair of 2D virtual mono-energetic scout images (VMSIs) was established in order to semi-automatically compute the aBMD at the spine similarly to DXA, using manual soft tissue segmentation, semi-automatic segmentation for the vertebrae, and automatic segmentation for the background. The method was assessed based on repetitive measurements of the standardized European Spine Phantom (ESP) using the standard scout scan tube current (30  ...
Source: European Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Rationale: Anorexia nervosa is a chronic psychiatric disease defined by severe weight loss, due to fear of obesity, and self-imposed semi-starvation. Of the many complications following anorexia nervosa, low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant risk factor for fractures. Anorexia nervosa is associated with higher risk of incident fracture in females across all age groups, and in males>40 years old. Sites at highest risk of fracture include the hip/femur and pelvis in females, and vertebrae in males with anorexia nervosa. Patient concerns: A 29-year-old woman known to have suffered from anorexia nervosa 15...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
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