Latent Tuberculosis in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies to Prevent Disease Activation in an Endemic Population

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a global health problem estimated to affect at least one out of every four people in the world [1]. Recent changes in sociodemographic paradigms during the latter part of the 20th century, have made of LTBI an important clinical and socioeconomic challenge, particularly in developing countries [2,3]. Incidence of LTBI varies widely between geographical regions, ranging from 3.3 and 11.9 cases per 100,000 individuals in the United States and the European Union, respectively, to 100 cases per 100,000 individuals in Africa [4,5,6].
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

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Conclusions/SignificanceOur report adds important contributions to the clinical-epidemiological features of sporotrichosis, showing the geographic expansion of the agent within different regions of Brazil and a rare clinical manifestation (primary pulmonary sporotrichosis) caused by the emerging agentS.brasiliensis in an immunocompetent female patient.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract The aerobic, Gram-negative motile bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular bacterium causing melioidosis, a critical disease of public health importance, which is widely endemic in the tropics and subtropical regions of the world. Melioidosis is associated with high case fatality rates in animals and humans; even with treatment, its mortality is 20-50%. It also infects plants and is designated as a biothreat agent. B. pseudomallei is pathogenic due to its ability to invade, resist factors in serum and survive intracellularly. Despite its importance, to date only a few effector pr...
Source: Briefings in Bioinformatics - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Brief Bioinform Source Type: research
In this report, we are presenting a 45 ‐year‐old physician who presented with chronic dry cough, hoarseness of voice, and progressive vocal fatigue. Fibreoptic laryngoscopy (FOL) showed whitish patches on both vocal folds and he was initially diagnosed with laryngeal aspergillosis following histopathological examination. As there was no significant improvement on antifungal treatment, we re‐evaluated the case and, on further investigation, concomitant PTB was detected. Patient responded to category‐I anti‐tubercular drugs with complete recovery.
Source: Respirology Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
In this study, we asked whether MAF and MTB infected patients possess distinct intestinal microbiomes and characterized how these microbiota communities are affected by anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Additionally, we assessed if the changes in microbiota composition following infection correlate with pathogen induced alterations in host blood-gene expression. MethodsA longitudinal, clinical study of MAF infected, MTB infected patients assessed at diagnosis and two months after start of ATT, and healthy, endemic controls was conducted to compare compositions of the fecal microbiome as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. A ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Africa is grappling with managing diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis as health systems that are unable to cope with both this and the coronavirus pandemic. Sleeping under a net and taking antimalarial pills helps prevent malaria. Credit: Mercedes Sayagues/IPS By Busani BafanaBULAWAYO, Zimbabwe, May 11 2020 (IPS) Experts across Africa are warning that as hospitals and health facilities focus on COVID-19, less attention is being given to the management of other deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, which affect millions more people. “Today if you have malaria symptoms you are in big tr...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Africa Aid Development & Aid Featured Headlines Health Population Poverty & SDGs Sustainability TerraViva United Nations Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Fund for Aids/TB and Malaria Source Type: news
Purpose of review The present review focuses on recent advances and current challenges in screening, diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (TB) in children, encompassing TB infection and TB disease, and public health priorities for screening and family engagement. Recent findings Although awareness has improved in recent years that children in TB endemic areas suffer a huge disease burden, translation into better prevention and care remains challenging. Recent WHO guidelines have incorporated screening of all household contacts of pulmonary TB cases, but implementation in high incidence settings remains limited. Im...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: PULMONOLOGY: Edited by David N. Cornfield Source Type: research
Authors: Mettle FO, Osei Affi P, Twumasi C Abstract Mathematical models can aid in elucidating the spread of infectious disease dynamics within a given population over time. In an attempt to model tuberculosis (TB) dynamics among high-burden districts in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, the SEIR epidemic model with demography was employed within both deterministic and stochastic settings for comparison purposes. The deterministic model showed success in modelling TB infection in the region to the transmission dynamics of the stochastic SEIR model over time. It predicted tuberculosis dying out in ten of twelve high-burd...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research
We report the case of a 26 ‐year‐old female who presented with sore throat for several months. CT revealed an infiltrative laryngeal mass and upper lobe pulmonary opacities. Laryngoscopic biopsy confirmed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with positive culture forMycobacterium tuberculosis.
Source: Clinical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
Conclusion: Intraocular inflammation can be the first manifestation of tuberculosis. Our data highlight that early diagnosis and specific treatment of TBU may allow to decrease recurrences and to improve visual outcomes. PMID: 32280522 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a diagnostic challenge, particularly in low endemic settings with ageing populations. The impact has both individual and infection control implications.Recent FindingsOver the past 20  years, progress has been made in trying to improve TB diagnostics. International recommendations for investigation however still rely heavily on the index of suspicion, imaging and ultimately culturingMycobacterium tuberculosis which remains the gold standard for diagnosing TB disease. Recent advances include molecular diagnostics with the ability to rapidly identify TB diseas...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
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