An abundant quiescent stem cell population in Drosophila Malpighian tubules protects principal cells from kidney stones

AdultDrosophila Malpighian tubules have low rates of cell turnover but are vulnerable to damage caused by stones, like their mammalian counterparts, kidneys. We show thatDrosophila renal stem cells (RSCs) in the ureter and lower tubules comprise a unique, unipotent regenerative compartment. RSCs respond only to loss of nearby principal cells (PCs), cells critical for maintaining ionic balance. Large polyploid PCs are outnumbered by RSCs, which replace each lost cell with multiple PCs of lower ploidy. Notably, RSCs do not replenish principal cells or stellate cells in the upper tubules. RSCs generate daughters by asymmetric Notch signaling, yet RSCs remain quiescent (cell cycle-arrested) without damage. Nevertheless, the capacity for RSC-mediated repair extends the lifespan of flies carrying kidney stones. We propose that abundant, RSC-like stem cells exist in other tissues with low rates of turnover where they may have been mistaken for differentiated tissue cells.
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Developmental Biology Source Type: research

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Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare, benign lesion that can be encountered anywhere along the urinary tract. It is associated with genitourinary trauma, chronic inflammation, genitourinary surgery, renal transplant, urolithiasis, and radiation. In children, these lesions are almost exclusively found in the bladder. However, we report an unusual case of a 15-year-old boy with no prior urologic history who presented with an obstructing right ureteral nephrogenic adenoma that required an ileal ureter interposition and right ureterectomy.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Tamsulosin plus Tadalafil is more effective than tamsulosin with early passage of stone and decreased number of colic episodes and emergency visits without significant side effects for lower ureteric calculi of 5 mm to 10 mm. PMID: 32411212 [PubMed]
Source: Advances in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Adv Urol Source Type: research
Conclusions: US-guided MPCNL showed an excellent SFR and low complication rate in the management of pediatric patients with upper ureteral and renal stones. PMID: 32401098 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: J Invest Surg Source Type: research
We report on two cases treated with our standardized laparoscopic technique using only three 5-mm trocars. The proposed approach could be considered as the first-line treatment for RCU. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text
Source: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: PI-DJS during PCNL allowed for a reliable and stable reflux from the bladder into the renal pelvis to produce an artificial hydronephrosis without the formation of microbubbles, unlike conventional ureteral catheters. PMID: 32309876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Urology Journal - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Urol J Source Type: research
Vladimir Vladimirovich Protoshchak, Nikolay Yurievich Iglovikov, Maksim Vladimirovich ShevninUrology Annals 2020 12(2):196-198Kidney and upper urinary tract anomalies account for 23% of all birth defects. Partial duplication is slightly more prevalent than complete, 70% and 30%, respectively. A very low fusion of ureters, i.e., in the intramural part, is a rarer case. As a result, the joint section is very short (<1 cm) and may be invisible for radiological diagnosis. This case shows a rare variation of incomplete bifid ureter coupled with urolithiasis, which should be taken into account by the physician wh...
Source: Urology Annals - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is a feasible operation for patients with renal stones and intrarenal pelvis in centers with adequate experience in laparoscopy. However, the success of LPL decreases in patients with multiple stones and intrarenal pelvis. PMID: 32281090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Urology Journal - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Urol J Source Type: research
This study is a single-centered prospective surgical cohort study. A total of 383 patients were analyzed. Regularly followed 304 patients with unilateral kidney stone at single pole or renal pelvis and who underwent single-session RIRS were included in the final analysis, and the patients ’ preoperative and postoperative 1st and 3rd months’ data were evaluated. RPT was measured on the non-contrast computed tomography (CT) images. ROC analysis was performed to estimate the cutoff value of RPT for SFR. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to model the relationship between RPT and SFR...
Source: Urolithiasis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
AbstractThe aim of the study was to analyze the factors predicting success for the treatment of proximal ureteral stones larger than 1  cm with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in adult patients. Between January 2014 and December 2018, 480 adult patients in total underwent SWL and data were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with multiple ureteral stones, solitary kidney, congenital abnormality, skeletal system abnormal ity, history of previous urinary system surgery and SWL, renal insufficiency, patients who could not tolerate SWL and pediatric patients were excluded from the study. The remaining 415 patie...
Source: Urolithiasis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
AbstractObjectivesPrevious studies have shown that split-bolus protocols in virtual non-contrast (VNC) reconstructions of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) significantly decrease radiation dose in patients with urinary stone disease. To evaluate the impact on kidney stone detection rate of stone composition, size, tube voltage, and iodine concentration for VNC reconstructions of DE-CT.MethodsIn this prospective study, 16 kidney stones of different sizes (1.2 –4.5 mm) and compositions (struvite, cystine, whewellite, brushite) were placed within a kidney phantom. Seventy-two scans with nine different iodine ...
Source: European Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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