In Vivo Imaging of Neuroinflammatory Targets in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy

This article reviews recent research on in vivo imaging of neuroinflammatory targets in patients with treatment-resistant, non-lesional epilepsy.Recent FindingsA number of advanced approaches based on imaging neuroinflammation are being implemented in order to assist localization of epileptogenic onset zone. The most exciting tools are based on radioligand-based nuclear imaging or revisiting of existing technology in novel ways. The greatest limitations stem from gaps in knowledge about the exact function of neuroinflammatory targets (e.g., neurotoxic or neuroprotective). Further, lingering questions about each approach ’s specificity, reliability, and sensitivity must be addressed, and clinical utility must be validated before any novel method is incorporated into mainstream clinical practice.SummaryCurrent applications of imaging neuroinflammation in humans are limited and underutilized, but offer hope for finding sensitive and specific neuroimaging-based biomarker(s). Future work necessitates appreciation of investigations to date, significant findings, and neuroinflammatory targets worth exploring further.
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Jul 24, 2020. . Sponsored by RME Collaborative (Rural Medical Education)
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Publication date: September 2020Source: Epilepsy &Behavior, Volume 110Author(s): Andrija Javor, Laura Zamarian, Gerhard Ransmayr, Manuela Prieschl, Melanie Bergmann, Gerald Walser, Gerhard Luef, Wolfgang Prokop, Margarete Delazer, Iris Unterberger
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractDeficiency of the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane proteinARV1 leads to epileptic encephalopathy in humans and in mice.ARV1 is highly conserved, but its function in human cells is unknown. Studies of yeastarv1 null mutants indicate that it is involved in a number of biochemical processes including the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), a glycolipid anchor that is attached to the C-termini of many membrane bound proteins. GPI anchors are post-translational modifications, enabling proteins to travel from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi and to attach to plasma membra...
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), one of the autosomal dominant ataxias, is characterized by slowly progressive gait ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, epilepsy as well as non-motor symptoms [1]. The latter include dysautonomia, cognitive deficits, chronic pain, psychiatric comorbidities and sleep disorders [ [1,2]]. SCA10 is caused by expansion of ATTCT pentanucleotide repeats in the ATXN10 gene – which codes for ataxin 10 [ [1–3]]. Recent experimental data suggested a possible relationship between SCA10 and development of cancer [4].
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ConclusionsOur study first described the ophthalmic and neurologic characteristics of a small cohort of unrelated mainland Chinese patients with sialidosis type 1. We found that c.544A>G (p. S182G) might be a hotspot variant in Chinese patients. The accumulation of metabolic products in the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers is a characteristic ocular finding that could be sensitively detected by OCT and FAF imaging.
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
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Nature Reviews Neurology, Published online: 26 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41582-020-0372-0Author Correction: Zoonotic and vector-borne parasites and epilepsy in low-income and middle-income countries
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