Characterization of Chromosomal Instability and its Effect on Radiation Sensitivity in Head and Neck Cancer

Chromosomal instability (CIN), an ongoing rate of chromosome missegregation events over the course of multiple cell divisions, is common in cancer. Low CIN can be weakly tumor promoting while high CIN causes rapid cell death due to loss of both copies of one or more essential chromosomes. Combining two independent insults that each cause low CIN results in high CIN, which leads to cell death and tumor suppression. Because radiation causes CIN, we hypothesize that pre-existing CIN, which has not been well characterized in head and neck cancer (HNC) and can be caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), sensitizes HNC cells to radiation therapy.
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Molecular Biology and Therapeutics Source Type: research

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Radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) is one of the severe sequelae of treatment in head and neck (HNC) cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT), with chronic toxicity arising even after acute symptoms have ceased [1]. Chronic RAD is even more relevant in the era of Human Papillomavirus associated (HPV) HNC, where the majority of patients have curable disease with prolonged survival, and thereby endure later toxicities which are otherwise not encountered in patients with aggressive HPV negative disease and relatively shorter survival duration.
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The epidemiology of oropharyngeal cancer is evolving. Previously, this disease was frequently observed in patients with substantial tobacco and alcohol use[1]. More recently, human papillomavirus (HPV) related oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in incidence, particularly in young and non-smoking patients.[2,3]. The prevalence of HPV related oropharynx cancer has increased from 40% of all cases in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9003 to 68% on RTOG 0129 and 73% on RTOG 0522[4,5].p16 immunohistochemistry is a reliable surrogate for determining HPV status[6].
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
We read with great interest the Oncology Scan article by Anderson et  al.1 The paper focused on the latest findings indicating that radiation therapy plus cetuximab led to inferior overall survival in human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), compared with standard concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The authors summarize an d comment on the recent results of 2 large prospective randomized trials2,3 published in January 2019 in The Lancet. Both trials were based on the hypothesis that substituting cisplatin with cetuximab could offer a valid, but less toxic, alternative as...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Comment Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: IAP1/XIAP antagonist ASTX660 sensitizes HPV(+) HNSCC to TNFα via a mechanism involving restoration of TP53. The present findings serve to motivate further studies of dual cIAP/XIAP antagonists and future clinical trials combining these antagonists with radiotherapy to treat both HPV(+) and (-) HNSCC. PMID: 31266830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Let's get to the punchline because it is a big one: Radiation therapy plus cetuximab led to inferior overall survival (OS) in human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It is in light of the recently published results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1016 and De-ESCALaTE HPV that we scope this issue's Oncology Scan to discuss the populist view that has prevailed among the head and neck cancer community for some time now: treatment de-intensification in HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC (OPSCC).
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Feature Source Type: research
Head and neck cancer (H&N) is the sixth most common tumour worldwide [1]. In the UK, H&N cancers account for 3% of all new cases and the rate of incidence has increased by 30% since the early 1990s [2]. Over the last 10 –20 years, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has become an increasing cause of a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) in the H&N [3]. Radiation therapy (RT) is often used to treat OPSCC and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) aids target volume delineation (TVD) in RT planning.
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Original paper Source Type: research
Conclusions In the span of a very short time—less than a decade—robotic head and neck surgery has transformed the management of the head and neck cancer, and it seems clear that the future of treatment for these cancers lies in a multimodal approach in which TORS is likely to play an important role. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that the current indications for TORS are limited and long-term data on the safety and oncological outcomes are needed to better understand the true role of TORS in treatment of head and neck cancer. Nonetheless, the emergence of ever more advanced robotic instruments i...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
averri Marcela Lizano Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Head and neck squamous cells carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most frequent subtype of HNC. The development of HNSCC is associated to alcohol consumption, smoking or infection by high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Although the incidence of cancers associated with alcohol and tobacco has diminished, HNSCC associated with HR-HPV has significantly increased in recent years. However, HPV-positive HNSCC responds well to treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation or chemoradiation therapy. Radiation therapy (RT...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with the cause of several cancer types, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. There has been great success in preventing HPV infections with the development of prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix. However, these vaccines have only been shown to prevent HPV infection and not treat those already infected with HPV. These vaccines elicit antibody responses to late HPV genes, and thus would not be effective in treating established tumors. To date, no therapeutic HPV vaccine has been approved by the FDA, and there is an unmet need for therapeutic vaccines...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe favorable prognostic significance of HPV seemingly extends to patients treated by re-irradiation suggesting that this biomarker may be useful in risk stratification in this setting.
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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