Inference of nonlinear receptive field subunits with spike-triggered clustering

We present a method for maximum likelihood estimation of subunits by soft-clustering spike-triggered stimuli, and demonstrate its effectiveness in visual neurons. For parasol retinal ganglion cells in macaque retina, estimated subunits partitioned the receptive field into compact regions, likely representing aggregated bipolar cell inputs. Joint clustering revealed shared subunits between neighboring cells, producing a parsimonious population model. Closed-loop validation, using stimuli lying in the null space of the linear receptive field, revealed stronger nonlinearities in OFF cells than ON cells. Responses to natural images, jittered to emulate fixational eye movements, were accurately predicted by the subunit model. Finally, the generality of the approach was demonstrated in macaque V1 neurons.
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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AbstractIntroductionNeuroimaging studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have recently revealed neurodegenerative changes in the central nervous system. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the retina, as an extension of brain, may be a biomarker in understanding the neurobiology of the disease. To assess OCT as a tool to detect neurodegeneration in BD we compared the retinal changes between patients with BD and healthy individuals.MethodsWe performed complete ophthalmological examinations and took OCT images for 70 eyes of 70 patients with BD, and for age and sex ‐matched individual controls. We compared...
Source: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Night vision in mammals depends fundamentally on rod photoreceptors and the well-studied rod bipolar (RB) cell pathway. The central neuron in this pathway, the AII amacrine cell (AC), exhibits a spatially tuned receptive field, composed of an excitatory center and an inhibitory surround, that propagates to ganglion cells, the retina ’s projection neurons. The circuitry underlying the surround of the AII, however, remains unresolved. Here, we combined structural, functional and optogenetic analyses of the mouse retina to discover that surround inhibition of the AII depends primarily on a single interneuron type, the N...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Comparative study of the visual system of two psammophilic lizards (Scincus scincus &Eumeces schneideri). Vision Res. 2020 Apr 28;171:17-30 Authors: Canei J, Burtea C, Nonclercq D Abstract Sand deserts are common biotopes on the earth's surface. Some specialized vertebrate species have colonized these ecological habitats by living buried in the sand. Among these so called psammophilic species are the Scincidae sand dune living species Scincus scincus and Eumeces schneideri. These two skinks share a relatively similar behavioral ecology by living buried in sand, almost all the time for S. scincus and a...
Source: Vision Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Vision Res Source Type: research
This article is categorized under:Nervous System Development  >  Vertebrates: General PrinciplesNervous System Development  >  Vertebrates: Regional Development
Source: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: OVERVIEW Source Type: research
Abstract By using the multi-electrode array (MEA) recording technique in conjunction with white-noise checkerboard stimuli and reverse correlation methods, we studied modulatory actions of glycinergic and GABAergic interneurons on spatiotemporal profiles of ganglion cells (GCs) in dark-adapted mouse retinas. We found that application of 2 µM strychnine decreased receptive field center radii of GCs by a mean value of 11%, and shifted the GC receptive field (RF) centers by a mean distance of 28.3 µm. On the other hand, 200 µM picrotoxin + 100 µM bicuculline ...
Source: Vision Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Vision Res Source Type: research
Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) organoid models derived from human pluripotent stem cells provide a platform for studying human development and understanding disease mechanisms. Most studies that examine biallelic inactivation of the cell cycle regulator Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) and the link to retinoblastoma is in mice, however, less is known regarding the pathophysiological role of RB1 during human retinal development. To study the role of RB1 in early human retinal development and tumor formation, we generated retinal organoids from CRISPR/Cas9-derived RB1-null human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We showed that R...
Source: Developmental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Dev Biol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Golimumab caused apoptosis in both photoreceptors and bipolar cells of the rabbit retina. Potential retinal toxicity of intravitreal golimumab should be considered if an intravitreal administration is planned. PMID: 32151118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Abstract Humans receive information from their environment mainly via the visual system. Signals from the photoreceptors of the retina via bipolar and ganglion cells are projected onto specific neuronal subpopulations in the lateral geniculate body and from there are forwarded to appropriate layers of the primary visual cortex. The most important anatomical and functional features of the visual system are explained. For this purpose, a selective literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed (also in Europe PubMed Central), Psychline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Web of Science as well as a...
Source: Der Ophthalmologe - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Ophthalmologe Source Type: research
Abstract Nitrite oxide plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases, especially when hypoxic processes are involved. This degeneration can be simulated by incubating porcine retinal explants with CoCl2 . Here, the therapeutic potential of iNOS-inhibitor 1400W was evaluated. Degeneration through CoCl2 and treatment with the 1400W were applied simultaneously to porcine retinae explants. Three groups were compared: control, CoCl2 , and CoCl2  + iNOS-inhibitor (1400W). At days 4 and 8, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), bipolar, and amacrine cells were analysed. Furthermore, the influe...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
AbstractLight insult causes photoreceptor death. Few studies reported that continuous exposure to light affects horizontal, M üller and ganglion cells. We aimed to see the effect of constant light exposure on bipolar and amacrine cells. Adult Sprague‐Dawley rats were exposed to 300 or 3000 lux for 7 days in 12‐hour light: 12‐hour dark cycles (12L:12D). The latter group was then exposed to 24L:0D for 48 hours to indu ce significant damage. The same animals were reverted to 300 lux and reared for 15 days in 12L:12D cycles. They were sacrificed on different days to find the degree of retinal recovery, if any, from ...
Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology - Category: Science Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
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