Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 298: Evolution and Pathogenicity of the H1 and H3 Subtypes of Swine Influenza Virus in Mice between 2016 and 2019 in China

In this study, 15 H1N1, one H1N2, and four H3N2 strains were isolated from a total of 4080 nasal swabs which were collected from 20 pig farms in three provinces in China between 2016 and 2019. All the isolates were clustered into four genotypes. A new genotype represented by the H1N2 strain was found, whose fragments came from the triple reassortant H1N2 lineage, classical swine influenza virus (cs-H1N1) lineage, and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus lineage. A/Sw/HB/HG394/2018(H1N1), which was clustered into the cs-H1N1 lineage, showed a close relationship with the 1918 pandemic virus. Mutations determining the host range specificity were found in the hemagglutinin of all isolates, which indicated that all the isolates had the potential for interspecies transmission. To examine pathogenicity, eight isolates were inoculated into 6-week-old female BALB/c mice. The isolates replicated differently, producing different viral loadings in the mice; A/Swine/HB/HG394/2018(H1N1) replicated the most efficiently. This suggested that the cs-H1N1 reappeared, and more attention should be given to the new pandemic to pigs. These results indicated that new reassortments between the different strains occurred, which may increase potential risks to human health. Continuing surveillance is imperative to monitor swine influenza A virus evolution.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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