Intranasally administered protein coated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating influenza H9N2 HA2 and M2e mRNA molecules elicit protective immunity against avian influenza viruses in chickens

AbstractChitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) represent an efficient vaccination tool to deliver immunogenic antigens to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which subsequently stimulate protective immune responses against infectious diseases. Herein, we prepared CNPs encapsulating mRNA molecules followed by surface coating with conserved H9N2 HA2 and M2e influenza proteins. We demonstrated that CNPs efficiently delivered mRNA molecules into APCs and had effectively penetrated the mucosal barrier to reach to the immune initiation sites. To investigate the potential of CNPs delivering influenza antigens to stimulate protective immunity, we intranasally vaccinated chickens with empty CNPs, CNPs delivering HA2 and M2e in both mRNA and protein formats (CNPs  + RNA + Pr) or CNPs delivering antigens in protein format only (CNPs + Pr). Our results demonstrated that chickens vaccinated with CNPs + RNA + Pr elicited significantly (p 
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect ofB. subtilis spores as adjuvants in chickens administered inactivated avian influenza virus H9N2. Herein, the adjuvanticity ofB. subtilis spores in chickens was demonstrated by enhancement of H9N2 virus-specific IgG responses.B. subtilis spores enhanced the proportion of B cells and the innate cell population in splenocytes from chickens administered both inactivated H9N2 andB. subtilis spores (Spore  + H9N2). Furthermore, the H9N2 and spore administration induced significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractInactivated (whole-virion, split, subunit, and adjuvanted) vaccines and live attenuated vaccine were tested in parallel to compare their immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Homologous and heterosubtypic protection against the challenge with influenza H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in a mouse model were studied. Single immunization with live or inactivated whole-virion H5N1 vaccine elicited a high level of serum antibodies and provided complete protection against the challenge with the lethal A/Chicken/Kurgan/3/05 (H5N1) virus, whereas application of a single dose of the split vaccine was much less effective. Adjuvants i...
Source: Biochemistry (Moscow) - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The I.M. injection of NE02 adjuvanted rH5 elicits strong and broad immune responses against H5 antigens and effectively protects animals from lethal H5 challenge. Combining this adjuvant with CpG enhanced immune responses and provided improvements in outcomes to viral challenge in ferrets. The results suggest that combinations of adjuvants may be useful to enhance H5 immune responses and improve protection against influenza infection. PMID: 32245642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Authors: Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cavecchia I Abstract The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) is currently, March 2020, affecting more than 100000 people worldwide and, according to the WHO (World Health Organization), a pandemic is shortly expected. The virus infects the lower respiratory tract and causes severe pneumonia and mortality in approximately 10% and 3-5%, respectively, of cases, mainly among the elderly and/or people affected by other diseases. AHCC is an α-glucan-based standardized mushroom extract that has been extensively investigated as an immunostimulant both in animals and/or in hu...
Source: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol Source Type: research
In this study, we have tested the efficacy of a human plasma-derived IgG product (FLU-IGIV) against seasonal influenza in mouse and ferret models of influenza infection. FLU-IGIV successfully protected mice (100% survival) against lethal influenza infection. Also, the survival rate observed with FLU-IGIV treatment was better than the survival rate observed with oseltamivir (60% survival). FLU-IGIV significantly reduced the viral load in the lungs compared to placebo (PBS) in ferrets infected with influenza A/California/July 2009 (H1N1pdm09) virus. Overall, these studies demonstrate the efficacy of human plasma-derived FLU-...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
Why are some people better able to fight off the flu than others? Part of the answer, according to a new study, is related to the first flu strain we encounter in childhood.Scientists from UCLA and the University of Arizona have found that people ’s ability to fight off the flu virus is determined not only by the subtypes of flu they have had throughout their lives, but also by the sequence in which they are been infected by the viruses. Their study is published in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.The research offers an explanation for why some people fare much worse than others when infected with the...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: The LIPS method could differentiate between sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated animals. However, in human samples obtained more than 6 months after the pandemic, LIPS was specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for ascertaining cases by exposure. PMID: 31955522 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Influenza Other Respir Viruses Source Type: research
Abstract Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been used as a vector in the development of vaccines and gene delivery. In the present study, we generated the thermostable recombinant NDV (rNDV) expressing the different forms of hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 based on the full-length cDNA clone of thermostable TS09-C strain. The recombinant thermostable Newcastle disease viruses, rTS-HA, rTS-HA1 and rTS-tPAs/HA1, expressed the HA, HA1 or modified HA1 protein with the tissue plasminogen activator signal sequence (tPAs), respectively. The rNDVs displayed similar thermostability...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
AbstractThe avian respiratory tract is a common entry route for many pathogens and an important delivery route for vaccination in the poultry industry. Immune responses in the avian lung have mostly been studied in vivo due to the lack of robust, relevant in vitro and ex vivo models mimicking the microenvironment. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have the major advantages of maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture of the lung and includes heterogeneous cell populations. PCLS have been obtained from a number of mammalian species and from chicken embryos. However, as the embryonic lung is physiologically undifferentiated ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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